"Sorry, I don't know the answer."
Translation:Извини, я не знаю ответа.
Actually, Genitive as an object of a negated verb is TOUGH STUFF. It is thought that it should better be learnt by looking at the examples, especially given that its use became more limited and, so to say, focused in the course of the 20th century.
However, in some cases they are partially interchangeable, like here.
Absolutely not. знаю is a verb, and thus is not relevant to any case. Отбета is the Genitive of ответ.
It is possible for -a to be an accusative noun ending, but for masculine nouns, it is only for *animate nouns in the accusative. "Answer" = Ответ is inanimate, so it's accusative ending is the same as the nominative ending (no ending in this declension).
I guess it is. Maybe this will help: http://blogs.transparent.com/russian/accusative-and-genitive-in-negative-russian-sentences/
Most of the time, Russian has those random exceptions:), when the verb is not happening, the direct object is genitive. Since не is before знаю, ответ will be ответа because masculine words ending in consanents add an а. Another example would be: i don't remember the question - я не забыл/забыла вопроса. Sorry this answer was long, but now you know.
There is a feature of Slavic languages: when a verb has a direct object and you negate the verb, the noun switches from the Accusative to the Genitive.
Or rather, it did. In the present day Russian, we mostly do not do this, except for some verbs, and also for rather abstract objects (e.g. не обращать внимания "to pay no attention").
Verbs of seeing/hearing/perception may do that (with the idea that if you did not see the thing, it was not there), and sometimes the negation feels more emphatic with the Genitive.
The issue is, as you can see, fairly complicated.
For usual actions on objects, like "I do not know your Dad" or "I did not eat apples" using the Accusative is most typical. The Genitive is not wrong per se but sounds straight out of 19th century literature (where such switch still was the norm).
Particularly because in English, YOU is equivalent to вы and THOU / YE is equivalent to ты.
This has created some difficulty because we seem to wish we still had a second person singular, so we have informalized YOU (making it the defacto second person singular) and in some instances created the new second person plurals, YOU-ALL, or Y'ALL or even YOUSE (ouch!).
Today even Y'ALL seems to be suffering the same fate of being singularized and I've heard ALL Y'ALL being used as the plural.
I'm just waiting to hear the expression, "Hey all y'all! Youse guys gather up all your folkses and let's have a party."
My Comprehensive Russian Grammar (Wade) has 3 pages on genitive after a negated verb. Partial summary: When in doubt, use the genitive. Genitive preferred in generalized statements: Я не бижу стола = I don't see (any) table. Accusative preferred with people or with specific objects: Я не вижу стол= I don't see the table. And there's more, but the finer details are much more than anyone would worry about in an elementary Russian course.
You probably can but better not because pronouns are relatively rarely omitted in Russian. More so in brief spoken exchange but even there it will not be frequent for most verbs.
UPD: by the way, there is some assymetry here regarding the choice of the case form. "Не знаю ответа" sounds okayish, and yet "Не знаю ответ" already sounds quite bad.
Nope, such wording is devoid of any meaning. You can possibly say «я не ответ знаю» if you mean that what you know is not the answer but something else.
Unlike English, не is not attached to a verb—in fact, it is usually attached to the word that is negated (which may be a verb but may be a noun or an adjective). So the word order matters even here.
Actually in this example извини is the singular imperative and извините is the plural imperative. I am not sure when you use the plural vs. the singular imperatives. I guess it matters from whom you are begging pardon.
The second person singular is извинишь but it is not used here.
Then I would expect one would say, ты меня извинишь when in English we say, I beg your pardon, or pardon me, or will you excuse me? Perhaps making eye contact and expecting a response like, It's OK. To me that is second person present imperfect.
If I just say Извини! it is when I have made a mistake while playing a game with friends, likewise Извините when I have stepped on someone's foot while exiting the subway. I am not necessarily making eye contact, and not expecting a response. To me that is the imperative.
I asked my Russian language pal the same thing. She said извинишь would not be used in this situation, but agreed with my understanding that it could be used when the speaker is expecting an acceptance of the apology, but in that case she would say Ты прощаешь меня?
It is more complicated than that. In Slavic languages, transitive verbs switch to the Genitive when negated.
Or... They used to. In modern Russian this is not the case anymore (unlike 100 years ago). But it can still happen for some verbs:
- Он имеет право. = He has the right.
- Он не имеет права. = He does not have the right.
The switch to the Genitive can also happen for some verbs of perception and more abstract objects, and sounds a bit stronger, just like here. Oftentimes, it is optional—just like here.