"Good morning, are you Vera and Vanya?"
Translation:Доброе утро, вы Вера и Ваня?
You can use вы when you talk to "respected" person - teacher, or someone who is older than you. And ты you can use when you talking with your friend. BUT in this situation, you talk with 2 persones, so we ALWAYS use вы when you talk with 2 or more persones. I hope now it's clear
Short forms are only used as predicates. They are also in a quite intricate relationship with the full form, with stylistic complications we only glance over in this course.
This being said, using "добро" is not possible here anyway because it would not be idiomatic even were we to assume it grammatically correct.
и is your vanilla "and" to connect items into a list (e.g., "I eat bananas and pears").
а is used for juxtaposition:
- Я Никита, а он Вася. = I am Nikita and he is Vasya.
- Она программист, а я нет. = She is a programmer and I am not.
- Это Ира, а не Оля. = This is Ira, not Olya.
- Это не Ира, а Оля. = This is not Ira, this is Olya.
- Она спит, а он говорит. = She is sleeping and he is talking.
- Я Вера. А ты? = I am Vera. And you?
The ending depends on the noun you attach it to. Russian adjectives agree with their noun in gender/number and case. So you get добрый день, добрый вечер (masculine) and доброе утро (neuter). The forms should match.
- nouns that end in a consonant (including й) are usually masculine, e.g., актёр, интернет, вечер, лук, футбол.
- nouns that end in -а/-я are typically feminine—unless they mean males (папа, мужчина..) or they belong to common gender that mean people (судья "judge", пьяница "drunk"). We also have 10 neuter-мя nouns (имя "name", время "time" and others).
- nouns that end in о/е/ё are usually neuter, e.g., море, молоко, окно, яйцо, поле
- nouns that end in a consonant+ь may be feminine (тень "shadow", ночь "night") or masculine (день "day", олень "deer", огонь "fire"); check the dictionary.
Oh, and people's names will always use the sex of the person for the grammatical gender—regardless of the ending they have. So Никита, Алёша, Марио or Джонни are masculine while Энн, Юри (Japanese), Шерон and Айгуль are feminine.