Also note that такси is a special case -- directly imported foreign words often don't decline. So the genitive singular of такси here is also такси.
so if you use a genitive preposition, the other words that can be in genitive form must also comply? Is this true only for genitive prepositions, or when there are any genitive words included? Would there be a case where этого would be the only genitive word in the sentence? I would think not, since you can't apply the 'of' rule here, but would like clarification/confirmation. Thank you.
The case of noun modifiers (adjectives, possessive pronouns, ordinal numbers etc.) must always agree with the case of the noun.
Just in case this helps: http://www.russianlessons.net/grammar/pronouns.php
As stated, этого is a genitive case of это. You can find prepositions that require genitive case here: http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/language/prepgen.html
Возле is one of them. Hence возле этого.
When I scrolled over этого, it listed "the" as a possible translation. Why is "Anna is near the taxi" incorrect?
Russian doesn't have a word for "the". Although sentences using этот can sometimes be translated using "the," you never need to. Offering that as a possible translation, while technically accurate, probably is contributing to confusion.
этот always means "that" or "this," in the sense of "the one we're talking about."
It's probably worth reporting this. It seems like this one of the inconsistencies you sometimes see with Duolingo where the scrolling offers you several translations and then marks you wrong for using one of them! I suppose it's partly because Russian is still in Beta phase. This shouldn't stop us from realising what a brilliant course this is however!
With the difference in stress, it's almost like they say она as uhNA and Анна as Annuh.
When the voice says этого I hear something like этово. Why is it pronounced that way?
For historical reasons related to Old Russian. That is the correct pronunciation whenever you see -ого.
Russian doesn't differentiate between definitiveness and indefinitiveness in nouns. это mean this, but it can also be translated as the (and if I remember correctly also that) depending on the situation. In this Duo course they've made the decision of mostly translating it to this. On the reverse tree, I think; it's mostly translated as the.
This confusion is due to the fact that languages work differently. Whenever a category is missing in a language like this, it's impossible to say a word has the same meaning as in another language where the category excists. It's good to compare, it's even better to learn to look at the world through the new language.
I just think of it as Russian having no compulsory/automatic articles. It has no a, an, or the -- unless there is an actual reason.
No, Russian just doesn't have articles, it uses word order to create the same effect. это is not an article, it is a pronoun. So in that sense it does correspond to this but it's not a 100% match since it can also be translated as the.
They are all different noun cases of этот. Are you reading the "Tips and notes" section of the various courses? Make sure to read the sections for at least the following courses: Where, Genitive1, Accusative, Prep&Place.
Yes I did...and there is no special note for етот. ... ето, ета ок... етого & етом???? Етого genitive? And етом???
First of all, it's этот, not етот. As for the various declension forms, specifically for этот, a Google search for "demonstrative pronouns Russian" (without the quotes) will yield endless tables and relevant information. In general, for declensions and conjugations of other words (not necessarily demonstrative pronouns), I like using openrussian.org.
I am not aware of ever having given someone my lingots before, since I'm saving them up for... something. Мои дети? Nah, they don't need 'em. But please, have one. OpenRussian.org is what I have been looking for - stress marks - readable font - declensions - ~stress marks!!!~. Be well!
Why does the г in этого is pronounced as a в? I've seen this in other words as well but don't understand why.
Ferrum already answered this: "For historical reasons related to Old Russian. That is the correct pronunciation whenever you see -ого."
In English (and in other languages I know) there is a real difference between "this taxi" and "that taxi". Is there really no such distinction in Russian? Are they really both это (or этого) такси?
OK, I understand now that "this taxi" is "этот такси" and "that taxi" is "тот такси". Is this correct?
It is not how you would say it. "Anna is near the taxi" is what would be said. Or if there were lots of taxis and you had to point then "that taxi". This and that are acts of specifying. "This" if you are close or you are holding the item, that if you are away from the item. To use "that taxi" when there was only one, would be an exclamation of some sort (either good or bad).
Your comment seems incorrect to me. 1. You would say "Anna is near the taxi" only if a specific taxi was previously discussed. If you haven't talked about some taxi prior to this sentence, referring to "the taxi" would raise questions. 2. Say there's only one taxi, and it's a 100m away, pointing at it and saying "this taxi" is bad English. Proper English is to address it as "that taxi", and there would be no exclamation whatsoever in this context. By the way, in the meantime I've actually realized that the two concepts in fact exist in Russian, they are этот and тот.
Indeed if the taxi was 100m away, "this taxi" would be wrong. Similarly "that taxi" would not be used if there was only one taxi. You would use "that taxi" if you were pointing at the same time.
IS it supposed to be Anna was near the taxi instead of Anna is near the taxi
далеко means far but you still need to translate "from" as "от". That is also genitive so the rest of the sentence is the same.
It's a little quirk in Russian pronunciation. All of these genitive endings -его and -ого have a v sound.
is it possible to translate этого as "that" instead on "this"? It appears on the suggestions, but I'm not sure.
What is genetive case? I keep hearing about it but it doesn't make any sense.
Here is a good resource on genitive case that will get you started. The entire website is a great companion for Duo — I especially appreciate it as a resource on perfective and imperfective verbs, when you get to that point.
And the short answer is the genitive case in English is words with "of" before them or with an -'s ending. Those situations translate into the genitive in Russian, and Russian also has some words like возле, для, у, нет, where the next word has to be genitive.
Diana784124 asked a similar question on this page, check out the answers to that question.