The English does not have the greeting "Good day", but it does not mean that the "Dobryi den" means "Good afternoon" and it is used only afternoons. "Dobryi den" is used forenoons as well or at morning as well (When someone use "Dobroie utro=Good morning" after 8:00 a.m. some people think about him that he is a "sleepyhead"). Therefore the translation of "Dobryi den, Anna" as "Good morning, Anna." should be accepted as well.
According to the Wiktionary it is /ˈdobrɨj/ https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%B9
It softens the previous character, for example the n (written н in Russian) in "день". So instead of n like in north it is n like in new.
Edit: It seems I was wrong with the pronunciation of new - it is also pronounced with normal N, not with the soft one. I suggest putting день in Google translate - there is an option to listen the words.
Essentially, when you add a soft sign, you move the tip of your tongue from the back of your teeth to the roof of your mouth. Really the only way to know it is by listening: try putting in ден and день into google translate respectively. You'll get it through practice, I'm studying Russian at University and it took me a long time to understand the concept.
My Russian is not very good, so I hope somebody will correct me if I am wrong.
добрый and хороший both mean good
добрый means good as kind or opposite of evil (but it may mean just good as in good evening) хороший means good like in good worker, good car etc.
хорошего is the genitive form of хороший
For example: Я желаю вам всего хорошего is literally I wish you all good (means: I wish you all the best)
Добрый is more polite and formal. In addition to it literally meaning "kind" or "dear", it's used as a greeting in more personal contexts. Хорошо is just a general "I'm doing well" or "it works well" (Я хорошо, работает хорошо) and is often used as more of an impersonal, informal reply or adjective.
и is i
ы is also i, but sounds harder
й sounds like the first character in English "You" or "yes"
е sounds like normal e preceded by й (so it is like yes without s)
ь makes any previous character softer
I think a few hours with a Russian teacher (can be on Skype) would make it much clearer :-)
They're different adjective endings depending on the gender of the word. Добрый is for masculine gender, Доброе is for neuter gender. Добрая would be for feminine gender (such as добрая ночь). The thing about Russian is that there are 24 different adjective endings depending on case, number, and gender, but you will learn those over time. These are the adjective endings for nominative case: -ый, -ая, -ое, ые.
The letter "ы" sounds similar to the German letter "ü", right? And I'm pretty sure that "й" is analogous to the English "y" -- but in this example it sounds like the "ый" in "добрый" is simply pronounced as the "oy" in "boy" is pronounced.
Is that correct or am I mishearing it?