"Этидевочкисёстры."

Translation:These girls are sisters.

3 years ago

20 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Giacobbe_s
Giacobbe_s
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I forget this at times. Why do we need to write the "--" Mark again?is it to represent that we are using the verb "to be" ?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
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Yes, in Russian you use the dash between the subject and the predicate when both are nouns.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Giacobbe_s
Giacobbe_s
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А, хорошо. Большое спасибо олимо. .

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Nominus_JPG
Nominus_JPG
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In grammar we call it Predicate Nominative, and it is used when a word in the predicate is the same as the subject: Actors = sisters.

I don't know if we can skip it :\

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
Jeffrey855877
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One thing that may be confusing you is the effect of the Russian spelling rules:

Endings of Stems
Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч ю→у я→а о*→е ы→и
Г, К, Х ю→у я→а --- ы→и
Ц ю→у я→а о*→е *unstressed

In singular, both девочка & сестра end in -a, so the nominative plural ending should be -ы. However, since the stem of девочка ends in к, you have to change ы to и. In Russian, you are not allowed to spell the plural as девочкы, it has to be changed to девочки.

Тhe stem of сестра is сестр- which ends in р, so the spelling rules don't apply, and there's no change to the plural ending.

Without the spelling rules, both words would end in ы in their plural form.

4 weeks ago

https://www.duolingo.com/gh5908

Is the use of ы and и completely arbitrary and random? I've seen it not only interchangeably used to define plural...but also singular. :(

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MauriceReeves
MauriceReeves
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Okay, so like a lot of other languages, Russian separates nouns into masculine, feminine, and neuter. In general, nouns breakdown like this:

  • Masculine nouns typically end in a consonant or with -й
  • Feminine nouns typically end in -а -я -ия
  • Neuter nouns typically end in -о -е -мя

Nouns that end in -ь can be either masculine or feminine. There's no good way to know for sure with them. Now, for changing the nominative singular into plural, there's some basic rules:

  • -о changes to -а so Окно becomes Окна
  • -е changes to -я so море becomes моря
  • -ь, -й, -я, changes to -и so Дверь becomes Двери
  • masculine ending in a hard consonant adds -ы so Стол becomes Столы
  • feminine ending in -а changes to -ы or -и depending on the consonant: улица becomes улицы and чашка becomes чашки
  • masculine and feminine nouns with a stem ending in -к -г -х -ч -щ -ж -ш add -и so нож becomes ножи and нога becomes ноги

The problem you're running into is that it also depends on the case of the noun. Russian has six cases (more or less):

  • Nominative (singular): this is the initial form of the noun, and the form given in the dictionary.
  • Genitive: this is used to show when something belongs to something else.
  • Dative: Also known as the indirect object in English. In English "I give the book to a friend," "friend" is the indirect object
  • Accusative: Also known as the direct object in English. In English "I read the book," "book" is the direct object
  • Instrumental: Used to indicate a tool or instrument that's being used. We don't have this case in English per se.
  • Prepositional case: Denotes a place or a thing that is the object of speech and thought. These always follow a preposition, though not all prepositions in Russian use the prepositional case.

In some of these cases, the ending changes to reflect the noun's case.

Your best bet, when learning the endings, and how they relate to cases is to learn them IN sentences, especially with prepositions.

I know it seems overwhelming, but if you work at it, you will get it.

Good luck.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ceflesch
ceflesch
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That was a great explanation - deserved a lingot! Similar to what the Deutsch language has, correct (nominative, genitive, dative,...)? Now, tell me, do you really know all those languages?! Impressive!! And 681 days in a row!! COngratulations, Herzlichen Gluckwunschen, Felicitaciones, Parabéns, and not sure how to say that in Russian yet.... :(

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/diogogomez

How can I get the link to this brilliant comment by MauriceReeves for future references?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
Jeffrey855877
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You can bookmark this page - it will bring you back to this particular discussion. You can also highlight, copy and paste the address that appears in the address of your browser and save it in a text file for future reference, like for instance:

https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11521995

is the URL of this discussion. Clicking on it here will bring right back here.

Or you can highly MauriceReeves' entire comment, and copy and paste it into a text file, with the proper file name so you can find it later. I do that a lot, with my own comments and others (saving the user name so I can give credit).

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
Jeffrey855877
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One of the things that makes this all quite a bit harder is that certain plural endings resemble singular endings in other genders.

For instance, the plural neuter а or я are the same as some singular feminine nominative endings and the same as some masculine singular genitive endings.

That to me seems to have the same logic as pulling oneself up by one's bootstraps, aka (also known as) circular logic. Endings are supposed to tell you the case of a word, which tells you the function of the word in the sentence. Technically, word order in case-oriented languages is unimportant, as the case is supposed to tell you the function of a word, so that the order of words doesn't matter - in theory, at least.

("To him the book gives she" means the same thing as "she gives the book to him", because we know the case and function of each word in that sentence. However, if you can't tell the difference between "she" and "to him" because in the foreign language, they both are the same word with the same ending, then you have a problem determining what the sentence means, at least not without something more besides simply the case endings.)

Thus, if an ending tells you that word is either Masculine Singular Genitive, Feminine Nominative Singular, or Neuter Nominative Plural, something else has to completely define the word-function, otherwise you'd couldn't be sure exactly what was being said.

IOW (In Other Words), the endings don't necessarily tell you the precise gender, number or case of a word, so you can't know what they mean exactly without some other clue in the sentence determining which case, number, and gender we're using.

I look forward to learning how to do that. The only thing I can do is not hold my breath while hoping Duo will get around to that.

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/bfoshizzle
bfoshizzle
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I saw it as "these are girls- sisters". That's not necessarily wrong, is it?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
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No, it is wrong. That would be "Это девочки-сёстры".

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ozz934283

Olimo i need a help here about ë i have no idea why we use it or not

3 weeks ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RockyMt.H

What is the difference between эти и это?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/nossey

Both mean "this", but эти is used for plural nouns and это is used for masculine nouns. By the way, это also means "this is", but not in this context.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/tigV11

I think it is plural and singular..

1 day ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AsianMelody

I wrote exact the same and its wrong but i dont understand whats wrong

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
Jeffrey855877
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Next time, copy and paste your complete answer in the discussion, so we can see what's wrong with it. If you got it wrong, you probably didn't write exactly the same thing which Duo did not count as a "typo" (a typing mistake which didn't create a different word.)

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
Jeffrey855877
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The pronunciation of сёстры seems to vary quite a bit. Of the 5 recordings at
https://forvo.com/word/%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D1%8B/#ru

only one actually pronounces ё with the alphabet sound; the rest pronounce it almost like the "i" is English "sister".

And the ы at the end sounds nothing like the ы in мы or вы. The ending -тры sounds much more like English "tree" - two or more of the recordings in the link I'm providing sound like "Sis-tree", but one sounds like "Syos-treh"

4 weeks ago
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