I believe it's more like (in essence) "traveling in a single direction", except English translates it as "coming" or "going". I'm not sure of the context which would make this apparent, but then, Duo doesn't provide context. That is such a mystery, because it's so helpful and important in teaching.
The Russian question means either "Are you going now?" or "Are you going in the nearest future?" I'm not a native English speaker, but I wouldn't say "Do you go?" in these cases.
If you want to ask if someone goes somewhere regularly, you should use the verb "ходить". Вы ходите в бассейн? Do you go to the swimming pool? Ты ходишь в школу? Do you go to school? (in principle, not right now)
Native English speaker, perhaps a bit late.
I have never said "Do you go" without something after it e.g. "Do you go to the zoo". "Do you go" by itself in English is just not used. (And even with the bit after it, it's an awkward sentence without some other qualifiers, but that's probably beyond the scope here).
I have often used "Are you going" both as just that, and also with something else. In other words the following two sentences in English are both valid and common:
Are you going?
Are you going to the zoo?
As a native speaker of Hiberno-English, I can confirm that it is correct. Note that in Hiberno-English we have a Habitual Present tense which is not found in other dialects, so it is not surprising that it sounds strange to you and some others. Nevertheless it is acceptable.
As a native English speaker I would not say "Do you go (to the party)?" in replacement of "Are you going?". I would use it if this was a regular weekly/monthly party AND I inquired or mention something about the event before asking. Ex: "I saw that Anna's band plays at the bar on wednesday nights, do you go? (Repeating occasion)" This is a much different translation than "Are you going?", which in the theme of this example would be used more like: "Anna's band is playing at the bar on Wednesday, are you going? (Specific occasion)"
I would expect that "Do you go?" has a more accurate Russian translation as well, like you have given us an example of.
Just to correct some replies you've been getting, as I'm a native English speaker:
"Do you go?" makes perfect sense, but only when the object has already been clarified. E.g. "I go to the gym. Do you go?"
P.S. The benefits of doing these lessons now is all of you have already asked the questions I've wanted to ask. :)
It's funny you say that, I see comments/questions on various sites from people working through this course. They don't ask here, and don't read the comments here, they go elsewhere and ask a question that has likely been answered in the course discussion.
In fairness, since this is Beta and still relatively new, the further on you get, the more sparse the comments get.
Still. I've never understood the mindset of "Oh hey I have a question about this. I'm NOT going to click on the discussion link here about this specific question but ask it on a completely different site"
You're right, I read the question discussions here even if I don't have a question since the posters here give a lot of flavor and nuance usages and answers. Heck, I check them when I'm cruising through on strengthening in case I missed something.
(I also do the latter in case I can help. But I'm not that great at this so that generally doesn't happen.)
I may be able to explain that behaviour: i have asked questions before and I can read the answer because I get an email but on my mobile phone it won't let me login on the website to follow the discussion (it says I am already logged in) and the mobile Version won't let me come back to questions unless that same sentence comes up again. There is no discussion link in the mobile version.