https://www.duolingo.com/olimo

A Guide to Using ЭТО

olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

I've seen so many people confused with "это" and "этот/эта/эти" that I decided to write an explanation of these. I have not seen any special post for this so far.

ЭТО - the demonstrative pronoun

It means "this/these" as in "This is a pen" or "These are ducks". Note that we don't use any equivalent of "is" in Russian, so you can even think of the pronoun-like "это" as of "this is/these are" (even if it is not exactly correct).

Examples:

  • Это собака. This is a dog.
  • Это мальчик. This is a boy.
  • Это кошки. These are cats.
  • Это моя машина. This is my car.
  • Это правильный ответ. This is the correct answer.

"Это" is also used in definitions:

  • Собака - это животное. A dog is an animal.
  • Курица - это не рыба. Chicken is not fish.

You can omit "это" in such cases, but keep the dash.

ЭТОТ / ЭТА / ЭТО / ЭТИ - the demonstrative adjectives

They mean "this" or "these" as in "this pen" or "these ducks". These words are always used with a noun and must agree with its gender:

ЭТОТ is for masculine nouns:

  • этот стул = this chair
  • этот мальчик = this boy
  • этот рис = this rice

ЭТА is for feminine nouns:

  • эта девочка = this girl
  • эта тетрадь = this notebook
  • эта лошадь = this horse

ЭТО is for neuter nouns:

  • это яблоко = this apple
  • это море = this sea
  • это задание = this task

ЭТИ is for plural nouns of any gender:

  • эти мальчики = these boys
  • эти девочки = these girls
  • эти яблоки = these apples

What Is Confusing

You may have noted that "это" can be both a demonstrative pronoun and a demonstrative adjective of the neuter gender. So, "это яблоко" may mean both "this apple" and "this is an apple", and without context you can only tell them apart by the first capital letter and a fullstop in case it is a sentence.

  • это яблоко = this apple // a phrase
  • Это яблоко. = This is an apple. // a sentence

A Rule of Thumb

  • If you can replace "this/that/these/those" with "it" or "they" → use the undeclined "это" (demonstrative pronoun)
  • If you can't → use the declinable "этот/эта/это/эти" (demonstrative adjective)

Examples:

  • This is a table → It is a table? Looks fine! → Это стол.
  • This table is mine → It table is mine? No way! → Этот стол мой.
  • These are books → They are books? Looks fine! → Это книги.
  • Are these books yours? → Are they books yours? No way! → Эти книги ваши?

Declensions

For those who already made it to the Russian case system, here is the declension table for the demonstratives. I placed neuter next to masculine because their forms are the same in many cases.

https://www.dropbox.com/s/j9qcquawa0cahr1/eto.png

Sorry, Dropbox has broken something and I can't paste it as a picture any more.

The accusative forms written with a slash are for animate/inanimate nouns (like "этого кота / этот стол").

Hope this helps!

3 years ago

224 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/HoneyBadger1016

How would you say, "This is boring?" Not saying that this is boring, I just really want to know.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Verner5
Verner5
  • 11
  • 10
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 4
  • 4
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

"Это скучно" :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/owenvenes
owenvenes
  • 11
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 5

Interestingly one of my favourite parks in Moscow is called "Нескучный сад" which more or less translates as "The not boring park" :) https://www.google.com/maps/place/Neskuchny+Garden/@55.7170686,37.5881317,14.5z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x0000000000000000:0x1ad024ed390a76e5

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/HoneyBadger1016

Ah, thank you. :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ivan_from_Russia

Also: "Это скучновато", "Это скучненько" :)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/goldbedr

Any chance you can expand this to include like....exactly where этого fits in? I think that's the...accusative or genitive form, but if you can list all the forms of it and where we use them, that would help complete this!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

As a pronoun adjective, этот should agree with the noun it describes in gender, number and case. So it has forms for oblique cases, too.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

I added a table of declensions. I won't cover the usage of every case in this guide, though - I don't want to overwhelm you with information. It is better to learn cases and their usage one by one, like it is done in the course.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/sdr51
sdr51
  • 22
  • 12
  • 11
  • 8

Right you are olimo, although I also find it helps to have a slot into which to pigeon-hole cases when learning. One of the very helpful things you've provided here is a partial structure for that, pre-assembled. So it's a matter of making the right use of the tool. Rather than trying to learn things a whole structure at a time, just know they're there, reference each new item as it comes and find its place, and look back there also for refreshers and comparisons. Best of both worlds. Thanks so much for this very useful aid!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/goldbedr

Awesome, thank you!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rustycontraption

Wiktionary.com has pages in English for most Russian words, and they include declension and conjugation tables. I've found it to be super helpful!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rihod
rihod
  • 9
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5

спасибо

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mariocasas
mariocasas
  • 22
  • 21
  • 12
  • 11
  • 3

thank you

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Hmmm, I don't think cases are really necessary in this basic guide, but l will think of a way to add a table of declensions.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Nuept
Nuept
  • 15
  • 10
  • 9
  • 2

Я не знаю этого мальчика (nom. этот мальчик). Я не видел этого дерева ("Я не видел это дерево" тоже правильно).

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/richard547513
richard547513
  • 15
  • 15
  • 13
  • 9
  • 8
  • 37

That would be information overload

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/choeisa

Это очень полезно спасибо :-)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Пожалуйста!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Gaby754722
Gaby754722
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 22
  • 16
  • 11
  • 10
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 5
  • 985

OK, so basically, to recognize between the demonstrative pronoun and the demonstrative adjectives, you only have to ask yourself: Which is the subject? Is "This" or another word?" If it's "this" the subject then, you only have to use ЭТО. Is not "this" the subject? Then use ЭТОТ / ЭТА / ЭТО / ЭТИ.

Example:

This is a pen

Which is the subject? "This"

So "this" is ALWAYS translated as ЭТО.

This chair

Which is the subject? (The) chair. "This" acts as an adjective (in this particular case, this indicates how close is the chair to).

So you have to use ЭТОТ / ЭТА / ЭТО / ЭТИ.

I get crazy trying to understand this. But I think that I finally did it!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

This is a great rule of thumb!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/savanna_barlow

nice profile pic :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/jug89
jug89
  • 13
  • 8
  • 6

спасибо большое

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/UmaimaEhtasham

thanks a lot :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/GlobalJim711
GlobalJim711
  • 16
  • 14
  • 12
  • 11
  • 10

What will help immensely is context as stated. If you need to identify something, ( Что это)?, the response will start with Это. On the other hand, if you know the topic (normally the grammatical subject), then the demonstrative is used.

Почему ты не смотришь спортивную программу по телевизору? Этот телевизор не работает.

In Russian, these "identifying" words are used less often.

Боже мой, ещё раз Телевизор не работает. Is more likely.

The demonstratives are needed when there is confusion.

Не на той странице но на этой!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/wayne902574

Gaby,

This is a 'pronoun.' In the first sentence, the subject is 'pen.'

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Gaby754722
Gaby754722
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 22
  • 16
  • 11
  • 10
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 5
  • 985

I don't think so :P.

The subject of a sentence is a person or thing that performs the action of the verb. And in the first setence the one who is performed an action (the action is the verb "to be") is "this". Not the "pen". But well, maybe I'm wrong so...can you explain why do you think other thing?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/wayne902574

I see this a LOT on Duo.

There is a huge difference between passive and active in English. The pen performs the action of the verb, but 'to be' only denotes STATE, not action. Therefore, the subject is actually 'pen.' And 'this' is functioning as a pronoun adjective (IIRC).

And to think, I HATED sentence diagraming in 6th grade.

Thanks,

Wayne

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

Actually, words like "pen" in sentences like "This is a pen" are predicative nominals (i.e. they are the part of the predicate).

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

Both are used. Though, the usage of "This is him" suggests that many native speaker intuitively feel that the thing that goes after a copula is not the subject. The point of divergence between prescriptive grammars of the past and actual usage is whether you should use the subjective or the objective form with a copula. The confusion naturally comes from the fact that English does not distinguish between its grammatical cases, except for personal pronoun.

  • Russian does distinguish them, for one. Depending on the copula, the tense and the exact meaning, a predicate nominal may use the Nominative of the Instrumental.

You may build your own grammar of English (if you wish). Then Bob in "Bob is a cat" and this in "This is a cat" may very well be adjectives, and "cat" may a subject of both. If we are talking about grammar you studied at school (or any theory of syntax in use by linguists, for that matter), they are not.

  • the English copula allows for an inverse structure. You may use both "The issue is the increase in the core's temperature" and "The increase in the core's temperature is the issue", sometimes only different in intonation (and even that is not guaranteed). In such cases, one should pick the interpretation first, and only then pass judgements about the structure (usually, "the issue" would be the subject).
2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/wayne902574

So, are you saying, "This is him" is correct rather than "This is he?"

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Gaby754722
Gaby754722
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 22
  • 16
  • 11
  • 10
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 5
  • 985

OK.

But then in a phrase like "This is blue", according to you, which is the subject of that phrase?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/LDPillar

I studied Russian for many years, though I didn't go full-on, balls-to-the-wall with it (hence why I'm using Duolingo to practice vocab). With a solid base, but being extremely far from any kind of fluency, even I have been able to find some definitively incorrect things in the Russian beta exercises. One of them involves Это. (There are a lot of issues with synonyms not being accepted.)

"That." It doesn't accept "that." In all the sentences with "это" that I've seen so far, "that" would've been valid.

That's all I have to say about Это. )))

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/flootzavut
flootzavutPlus
  • 25
  • 18
  • 18
  • 17
  • 14
  • 13
  • 13
  • 13
  • 12
  • 12
  • 12
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 8
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

If you find examples of that, report them :)

Thanks for the excellent explanation, Olimo!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/LDPillar

How do I do that? I couldn't find any links, which is why I posted here.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

When your answer is not accepted in a lesson, you can use the "Report mistake" button and select "My answer should be accepted". If it's valid, the course developers will add it.

This option is only present in the full web version, though.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MatthewW2

It is also an option on the iOS app

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AlphaEtaPi
AlphaEtaPi
  • 25
  • 23
  • 18
  • 18
  • 18
  • 11
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 9
  • 9
  • 1302

I also see it on the Android app. But when I view the full web version, there are some contexts where the button doesn't appear. For example, if I use my Nexus 7 and view the web version in portrait orientation, the button is missing. But it reappears when I switch to landscape.

That's just one of several differences in the web layout I see on my Nexus 7 in landscape vs. portrait. Another is that the Latin/Cyrillic toggle button in the Russian course seems to disappear in portrait. (On the other hand, with my Nexus 9, I always seem to see the full site in either orientation.)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Nuept
Nuept
  • 15
  • 10
  • 9
  • 2

To check if you should say "Эти яблоки" or "Это (-) яблоки", think like that: 1) Do you see these apples (to point at them as at the particular apples you are going to talk about) or ever mentioned THESE apples before? 2) Do you want to emphasize that these things on a table are apples and not watermelons?

If yes is the answer on the 1st question then you say "Эти яблоки" (it is usually a part of a sentence and after goes smth else, for example what has happened or will happen to THESE apples), because in such a case "Эти" would mean "These": "Эти яблоки очень сладкие" - "These apples are very sweet". If yes is the second answer then you say "Это (-) яблоки", because you are talking to an idiot who doesn't know that these little fruits on a table are apples: "Это яблоки, а не бананы, болван" - "These are apples, not bananas, dumby".

Another case: "Это облако" and "Это (-) облако" ("this cloud" and "this is a cloud") (WARNING: in this case the only difference is intonation) 1) Do you see this cloud (to point at it as at the particular cloud you are going to talk about) or ever mentioned THIS cloud before? 2) Do you want to emphasize that this thing in the sky is a cloud and not a bird/ rainbow/ whatever can be in the sky?

1) Your friend sees a cloud shaped like a cat. He points at it to show this particular cloud to you and says: "Это облако похоже на кошку" - "This cloud looks like a cat". You remember this cloud the next day and tell your other friend: "Недавно видел облако. Это облако было похоже на кошку" - "I saw a cloud not so long ago. This cloud looked like a cat". 2) You and your friend are playing football. Suddenly your friend sees a shadow on the ground and asks you: "What the hell it is?" You reply: "Это облако" - "This is a cloud".

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ZenSurvivor

That's a great guide, very good work! But I wanted to point out two minor issues: when "это" is omitted there is no need for the dash in the negative sentences, i.e. "курица — это не рыба", but "курица не рыба". Also we do have an equivalent of "is" — "есть", although it is rarely used. You can say "собака есть животное", even though it sounds rather old-fashioned.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Neko844923
Neko844923
  • 14
  • 12
  • 10
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 6
  • 6
  • 2
  • 106

To be even more old-fashioned, we have the plural of "есть" -- "суть" (not a noun in this case, see https://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/быть for other old forms of "to be": "есмь", "есмы", "еси", "есте" ): "Cобака и кошка суть животные" (but people do not usually speak this way).

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Captain000

This is a very well written guide! I would be interested in seeing some future guides from you as they are written so clearly and with samples! Thanks for writing this.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/somelauw
somelauw
  • 17
  • 13
  • 10
  • 10
  • 10
  • 10
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2

I think I might also have seen это as a translation for 'the' in the reverse course, even though normally Russian doesn't use articles.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Yes, you can translate "the" with "этот/эта/это/эти" if you can replace "the" with "this/these" in English.

Example:

I see a boy. The boy is eating an apple. → I see a boy. This boy is eating an apple.

Both "Я вижу мальчика. Мальчик ест яблоко" and "Я вижу мальчика. Этот мальчик ест яблоко" are fine.

If "this" does not fit instead of "the", you shouldn't translate "the" as "этот":

I need to go to the bathroom - Мне нужно в ванную (not "в эту ванную" because you don't mean "this bathroom" but just bathroom).

Enforcing "этот" as a translation for "the" was a workaround for the course developers to give the learner some clue about using the definite article. It was the best way they could think of, and I can hardly think of anything better in Duolingo environment.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ashley972433
Ashley972433Plus
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 25
  • 16
  • 13
  • 12
  • 1327

Indeed, I teach English to Russian speakers, and knowing when to use the article is one of the most difficult aspects of English for them to master. I have Russian colleagues who publish academic articles in English and still make rampant article mistakes.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/goldbedr

My inlaws came to the US and learned English in the late 70s and they STILL mess up definite and indefinite articles more than pretty much any other thing.

The only other thing they do (which I don't believe is technically wrong, just awkward) is construct future tense like they would in Russian: "You will go to the store and pick up groceries?". That could possibly be a request "Will you go to the store..." or it may also just be a question "Are you going to the store.."

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Nuept
Nuept
  • 15
  • 10
  • 9
  • 2

It's the true hell of English language (and other languages with articles) for those who don't have these articles at all. I still don't understand why you use them even though I've been studying English for more than 10 years now. But sometimes I find them pretty useful.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/sdr51
sdr51
  • 22
  • 12
  • 11
  • 8

I'm sure it feels very foreign to Russian speakers. The thing is (normal, unemphasized "the"), it gives room for considerable subtle nuance. "A" thing is one particular thing singled out from among other possibilities, which is also why one is able to make it into "a thing" (a one-and-only type of thing) that virtually draws attention to itself without overt action, which articles themselves can become for Russian speakers. And that's how it can develop into "the thing about English", that emphatically bothersome sticking point that never fails to confuse or mystify. It's all about emphasis and distinction, and I can understand why it would be so hard to understand when it's not a native type of expression. But the lowly article can be rich in connotation. A lot of it lies in the intonation of how it is said. "A thing" is just some specific thing until you heighten its pronunciation to "a thing", which draws attention to the fact that there are other things also, a fact that might not seem to be so apparent or so important in context, at first sight, but whose significance is thus highlighted. And that's nearly opposite to "the thing", which is so emphatic that (almost) no other thing at all is even possible in context (nothing else matters). I hope this serves to give you a little of the flavor of the thing (the article, that is) - "the" serving in this case to indicate that "article" is used as the name of a classification of word, and "thing" as the abstract idea of its usage, in both cases a concept rather than something concrete. Yikes! It almost confuses me to try to explain it!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jenz114
Jenz114
  • 11
  • 7
  • 5
  • 5

Has this этот for "the" workaround then in turn influenced the Russian for English Speakers course? Этот, along with the other demonstrative adjectives, appears so frequently here that I can't help but think the course developers just transferred over already built sentences, or am I mistaken in thinking that the demonstrative adjectives can't honestly be as common as the Duolingo course makes them seem?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

A bit not as common. If we would stay completely tru to reality, people rare say something like "I already read a book", they usually say "I already read it".

However, making up every sentence with "it" would no be very educational. If we refer to objects and persons more specifially that "she, "he" and "it", I don't think there's something wrong with " I already read that book" or "That woman did not say anything".

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jenz114
Jenz114
  • 11
  • 7
  • 5
  • 5

Thank you for your quick reply! The insights of native speakers are invaluable. I realize that to get the true sense of a language you must immerse yourself in a lot of both the spoken and written forms. In any case, you're absolutely right about the way we generalize in English using "it", and such generalizations don't lend very well to vocabulary building.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

All languages tend to be economical. I even think that textbooks and courses are very useful to have because it has slightly higher concentrations of new material. The idea that first 2000 words cover 70% of what is said is a double-edged sword: it means that after a certain threshold you do not learn much new even if you digest huge quantities of new texts and conversations every day.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/flootzavut
flootzavutPlus
  • 25
  • 18
  • 18
  • 17
  • 14
  • 13
  • 13
  • 13
  • 12
  • 12
  • 12
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 8
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

Seconding the rec for the frequency dictionary for anyone who wants to get serious. It was our bible in 4th year.

Some kind and conscientious person has put all 10K on a Memrise course, which is a fantastic resource.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jenz114
Jenz114
  • 11
  • 7
  • 5
  • 5

You're absolutely right Shady_arc. What you're talking about is that vocabulary threshold often mentioned that needs to be overcome when going from the intermediate to advanced level. The 2000 words number you mention seems to be the common consensus for the intermediate level of any language, which then frighteningly jumps to between 10 and 20 thousand words when approaching an advanced or "mastery" level. Fortunately we're not left without the tools for the task. I've found the Compact Oxford Russian Dictionary (denotes key words) and Russian Learner's Dictionary to be very helpful in this regard, the latter being a 10,000 word frequency dictionary. I would recommend both to anyone who wants to eventually move beyond the basics offered by textbooks and courses such as Duolingo, though I must admit not everyone probably finds dictionary reading as enjoyable as I do. ;)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mico12345
mico12345
  • 12
  • 11
  • 5
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

How would you say "These are apples"? Is it эти яблоки also?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

«Это яблоки».

Sentences like "This is ...", "These are ...", "That was ..." etc. always start with an «это» in Russian and with a «це» in Ukrainian. The gender and number of what follows does not matter.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/NerdyNathan

My understanding is that:

"Это яблоки." = "These are apples.", and "...эти яблоки..." = "...these apples..."

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

That's right!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mhouldey

So how do you say, "that was fun, but this is not fun"? Twice "это"? A form of Тот is never used?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

I'd say "это (pointing) было весело, а это (pointing again) нет". But it would be better to name the exact things that were fun/not fun.

"Тот" is mostly used as a demonstrative adjective. Эта книжка интересная, а та нет.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Neko844923
Neko844923
  • 14
  • 12
  • 10
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 6
  • 6
  • 2
  • 106

I feel that when using "то" and "это", "это" should go first (just like you did): "Это было весело, а то -- нет".

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/from_Alicia

so helpful ;) ty

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Double100
Double100
  • 12
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 4

Yes, very, you're totally right!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Psittacosis
Psittacosis
  • 25
  • 24
  • 19
  • 11
  • 9
  • 4
  • 2
  • 13

Fantastic. Guides like this are super helpful.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/0wain

Thank you for this guide! It is very clear and informative. I have only just begun the Duo Russian program, and so far it seems to use eto for everything, and doesn't really specify or make note anything you've written here. Maybe it does later, beyond the basics. But I feel like maybe this should be mentioned in the beginning, to prevent those of us who are new to the language from getting into bad habits and using wrong pronouns that will slow us down later when we have to relearn what we thought we understood.

I know the program is still in beta. I'm just glad it is finally accessible. I'll keep an eye out for corrective guides - yours and others!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Viktor-Creed

this is a good post very helpfull

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Rupertus
Rupertus
  • 25
  • 15
  • 12
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 2
  • 153

This is very helpful.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Tor_Heyerdal
Tor_Heyerdal
  • 25
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

This is phenomenally helpful. Thank you very much for writing this up. I think I'm going to bookmark this so that I can come back to it for future reference. I just have one question, in regards to this:

"это яблоко = this apple // a phrase Это яблоко. = This is an apple. // a sentence"

Does "this apple" always strictly have to be a phrase, and can never be a complete sentence? What about situations where it might be an answer to a question? Such as: A: "Which apple did you take?" B: "This apple." Would person B's answer here be automatically interpreted as "this is an apple", and just cause confusion for person A? If so, how would one say the equivalent of "this apple" as a full sentence response?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Sure, you can use the phrase as a short answer (rather than say Я взял это яблоко). You will also stress "это" or even drop "яблоко".

  • Какое яблоко ты взял?
  • Это яблоко. // or even simply: Это. Or even: Вот это (showing it).

  • Что это?

  • Это яблоко.
3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Tor_Heyerdal
Tor_Heyerdal
  • 25
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

Could "Вот это" be translated to something like "this [one] here"? Or perhaps "here [is] the [one]"?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Yes. We don't have the word for "one" as in "this one", so we just say "this" - это. "Вот" is to emphasize pointing to or showing something.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Tor_Heyerdal
Tor_Heyerdal
  • 25
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

That's what I thought. Thanks. =)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/2E3S
2E3S
  • 17
  • 8
  • 6
  • 3
  • 3

Another use of the demonstrative pronoun: Что это такое, Как это сделано.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Hojinkie
Hojinkie
  • 17
  • 17
  • 9
  • 8
  • 7
  • 5
  • 3
  • 3
  • 76

Does Russian differentiate between proximal, medial, or distal demonstratives?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ZenSurvivor

Yes, этот / это / эта / эти are proximal and тот / то / та / те are distal.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Saelyria
SaelyriaPlus
  • 25
  • 22
  • 17
  • 9
  • 7
  • 5
  • 311

Would it be wrong to say that это is the same as the French cela/ceci/ça (demonstrative pronouns), with этот/эта/это/эти being ce/cet/cette (demonstrative adjectives)? Since in English they're the same, was wondering if I could make a connection to French.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

It is a perfect connection! Feel free to use it!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/XavierWatkins0

so does "eto" mean "this is"?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TammyThompson467

As someone who is a Russian native speaker , I've never learnt the rules - I use this account to teach friends Russian ! And I've had a hard time explaining the technical words to them ! THANK YOU !

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/sarimoo

спасибо!

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EMarieNYC

This was very helpful, and much more clearly explained than anything I've found so far.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/gea123gea
gea123gea
  • 25
  • 25
  • 20
  • 18
  • 17
  • 16
  • 16
  • 15
  • 15
  • 14
  • 12
  • 12
  • 12
  • 138

this is a good explanation thanks!

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/FrlHartmann

As you can see, I'm still at the beginning of my journey through the Russian language, but this was super helpful! I was actually wondering about this earlier... Thank you!

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/frentfrent

Ахаха, кто бы знал что у вас с этим будут эти проблемы, это ж надо только подумать об этом "это" как о том. Это интересно. Это есть познавательно. Это тому хорошее подтверждение, что об этих ваших правилах в России только слыхали. Я бы дал вам реформировать это, это было бы здорово. Это хорошо.

11 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/GSToujou
GSToujou
  • 15
  • 13
  • 11
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10
  • 6
  • 6
  • 2

Thanks!

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Banafsheh402595

thanks a lot!! I had this problem for a long time, but now I understand very clearly. thank youuuuu.

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Kathy427595

Oh, thank you so much! I was struggling with that! I was able to copy the chart and save it.

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Katya202102

Very helpful and clear. Спасибо

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/italianvonne
italianvonne
  • 25
  • 14
  • 13
  • 11
  • 11
  • 9
  • 8
  • 6
  • 5
  • 631

Thank you for this timely explanation

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Emi_Alice
Emi_Alice
  • 22
  • 17
  • 13
  • 13
  • 13
  • 4
  • 3

This is helpful, thank you !

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TheCenterZone

А также, "с этим" сказать "with it" :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

What do you mean? It would be «с этим» but I am not sure what would you use it for.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TheCenterZone

Извините. Это был ошибка, но есть "об этом" который значит "about it." Спасибо вам за ответ! Всё ясно)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Eng2RusLearner

Thank you for this!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Marion246176

My Russian is on Duolingo home page and not the duo icon with my other language, so I have to go to Siri and open duo site is this normal. If not tell me how to fix it please. Thank you

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Zied11
Zied11
  • 13
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

Yes it is normal! Because Russian is still in Beta I believe it is not yet available on the duo app.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Robert252247
Robert252247
  • 23
  • 23
  • 22
  • 21
  • 13
  • 13
  • 10
  • 9
  • 6
  • 3
  • 3
  • 315

Russian was moved to the app a few days ago. The grammar tips are not available there though, unfortunately.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/-..--..-.-.-.-

Большое спасибо

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SilasGTBronte
SilasGTBrontePlus
  • 24
  • 20
  • 16
  • 10
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 5
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 377

Good thing I came across this guide. I will find it useful further on my Russian studies.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/arfedorova

спасибо!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/galletadecolores
galletadecolores
  • 25
  • 24
  • 11
  • 11
  • 6
  • 6
  • 2
  • 2

Spasibo!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/xcelent88

Very helpful, thanks

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Nabil_TO

Thanks for posting this. I found it very useful!!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JustinRack

Thank you for this very concise and informative lesson!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/makiky

Someone directed me to this point and this was incredibly helpful!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/erikhicks1

Does anyone know when the app will be released? ?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/patrickp90

Incredibly helpful, thank you so much.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/luca84p

Thanks for the help.. now it's clear to me.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sialia2
Sialia2
  • 25
  • 25
  • 24
  • 23
  • 18
  • 15
  • 14
  • 10

Your text and table greatly clarified my confusion. Thank you for answering my unasked questions!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mmonteiro30

Spasibo!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mico12345
mico12345
  • 12
  • 11
  • 5
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

Your chart has Assusative, instead of Accusative.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Thanks, fixed!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/erikhicks1

Did you understand it?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SmellySock85

Wow thank you so much. I was really struggling with this and your explanation makes it all so logical and understandable. I'm definitely bookmarking this page since I'm going to need it a lot until I get the hang of это and his alternates. XD

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
Shady_arc
Mod
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7

Hm. I wonder if we should include a few lines about ЭТО in our Tips :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SmellySock85

I'm sure that will be helpful for new, as well as intermediate learners of the language. I'm just now starting to notice how often это is used in the language.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/detailaddict

Yes - please do! A table of some sort would have been very helpful even if we didn't know how to use all the forms right at the beginning. Same goes for everything else with different forms that change depending on case, gender, number, and so forth. It all gets very confusing without something complete to refer back to and put the different forms in context.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AlitoBahia

Thanks a lot, i had problems defining the use of each one :S

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/indhare
indhare
  • 12
  • 9
  • 5
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

Thank you very much :) I get confused in usage of - мои, моя, моё

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ZenSurvivor

They all mean my/mine, but мои is used to refer to multiple objets (my cats - мои кошки), мой is used with masculine gender (my house - мой дом), моя is feminine (my dog - моя собака) and моё is neuter (my name - моё имя). Similar to the French mes (plural), ma (feminine) and mon (masculine).

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Robert252247
Robert252247
  • 23
  • 23
  • 22
  • 21
  • 13
  • 13
  • 10
  • 9
  • 6
  • 3
  • 3
  • 315

Thanks! I've been confused about that for a long time.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/zamlet
zamlet
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

I admit I haven't read all 103 current comments (104 counting this one!), but I agree that this is a nice explanation. I have one other small point to add, though: it might be worthwhile to give a brief explanation of how a demonstrative pronoun differs from a demonstrative adjective even in English - something along the lines of "This is a man" (where you can substitute "he" for "this" and it makes perfect sense, showing that it is a pronoun) vs. "This man is tall" (where substituting "he" for "this" makes no sense at all, showing that it is an adjective). That might make the distinction easier to understand in Russian or any other language.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

I added a rule of thumb that just came into my mind. I hope this will help you to quickly determine whether you have to use "этот/эта/это/эти" or just "это".

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SuzanneFau1

Thank you for the time and trouble you took to make this.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Melih426376

Certainly, a great job. This was a perfect answer for the questions floating in my head.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sheymalu

thanks a lot. i was confused a lot about это and all the others this really helped.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/lorahfeldman

This helps so much! Thank you!!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/oliveirasamuel

Very helpful! Thanks

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Meligordman

I'm just starting, and haven't learned the declensions yet. But I just wonder if the instrumental or prepositional is somehow related to the ablative declension in latin (specially the prepositional). Instrumental is a new idea for me, though its name makes sense.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/2E3S
2E3S
  • 17
  • 8
  • 6
  • 3
  • 3

Casus Ablativus is genetically unrelated to any Slavic case. However, Latin Casus Ablativus and Slavic Intrumental Case share some common roles, particularly the instrumental role. Prepositional case is former Locative which had disappeared in Latin. Well, it's another function of Casus Ablativus being with a preposition, yes.

I personally thought of Casus Ablativus as of Instrumental case since it can be used without prepositions.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Meligordman

Oh, I didn't even know that there was a Locative, very interesting. But thank you for the answer, exactly what I wondered. Спасибо!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
olimo
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 19
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7

Sorry, I have no idea.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/UsernameAK

ЭТО = it/this P.s. i'm native russian speaker

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/jpeefus

I've just run into this area and you've made it a lot easier. Большое спасибо!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Charlotte495738

Thank you this helped

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MarkCurtis9

A very clear and helpful explanation. Thank you!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Immanueldavid

thanks for the guide

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/go4jc247

That explains a lot! Thanks!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jessporuski

this was so helpful thank you!! it would be awesome if you could make one for the differences between мой/ моя/ мне etc as well!!! (because that confuses me a lot...)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/yarince321

thanks, veeeery good explained !

2 years ago

[deactivated user]

    @olimo, в Вашем сообщении сбилось форматирование. Не могли бы вы его поправить?

    Заголовки первого уровня сейчас не работают, зато с заголовками второго уровня (поставьте ---- на следующей строке после заголовка или ## перед текстом), третьего (### перед текстом) и так далее работают.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
    olimo
    • 22
    • 22
    • 20
    • 19
    • 10
    • 9
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7

    Спасибо за напоминание. Знала, но все никак не могла собраться сделать таблицу картинкой и поправить заголовки. Исправила.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/ElleRoark

    Amazing guide! Thank you for this, I was so confused that I didn't even know where to be confused!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/M.Middleton
    M.Middleton
    • 25
    • 25
    • 25
    • 25
    • 21
    • 9
    • 5
    • 4
    • 2
    • 46

    Very helpful. Thank you!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Anneliese324

    Could you do one on the difference between the "моя"s please? I can't find anything online about it :/

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Saelyria
    SaelyriaPlus
    • 25
    • 22
    • 17
    • 9
    • 7
    • 5
    • 311

    I'm not an expert with them, but this resource can get you started with them (they're called "possessive pronouns" in grammar-speech): http://www.russianlessons.net/grammar/pronouns.php

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/jmtf84
    jmtf84
    • 21
    • 4
    • 3

    This should be incorporated as a lesson, if it isn't, already. Great article! Отлично!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/mrr___a
    mrr___a
    • 10
    • 9
    • 9
    • 8
    • 5
    • 4

    Спасибо тебе автор, иностранцы всегда путаются в таких правилах :) А ещё в "тся/ться"(хотя я и некоторые русские/белорусские/украинские и т.д. люди также их путают), так забавно было видеть как какой-то англоязычный человек написал "очинь срасибо"! Это было мило :)

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/AfonsoSoares
    AfonsoSoares
    • 24
    • 24
    • 5
    • 117

    Very nice explanation!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/sple00

    Thanks, this was an answer I was looking for! :)

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/MashaMorsh

    "is"

    Мы опускаем глаголы. Вместо "Это является яблоком" в устной речи мы говорим "Это - яблоко".

    Когда мы начинаем учить английский, мы учимся не пропускать глагол "является".

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/ElenaZDOROVTSEVA
    ElenaZDOROVTSEVA
    • 13
    • 13
    • 12
    • 11
    • 10
    • 9
    • 7
    • 6
    • 5
    • 5
    • 561

    позволю себе уточнить Ваш коммент. В русском опускается глагол "быть" в настоящем времени. Мы не говорим "я есмь девочка", или "это есть лошадь". Хотя в прошлых веках назад глагол "быть" в настоящем употреблялся, спрягаясь соответственно "я есмь", "ты еси", "они суть" и т.д. Иногда сейчас можно сказать тоже, употребив форму глагола "быть" , но это будет звучать в пафосных и торжественных событиях. К примеру, "Это ЕСТЬ наша грандиозная задача!"

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/VicenteRiveraT
    VicenteRiveraT
    • 21
    • 17
    • 16
    • 15
    • 14
    • 4

    Интересно, спасибо!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
    olimo
    • 22
    • 22
    • 20
    • 19
    • 10
    • 9
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7

    Это к чему?

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/MashaMorsh

    Это долго. Если коротко, учу корейский и мне очень помогает знание трудностей, которые возникают у корейцев, изучающих русский. Иногда это дает больше, чем объяснение правил. Если еще короче, могу удалить.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/nikki.9

    Thanks for putting this together! (: This is really helpful for distinguishing between these words. I will definitely refer back to this the more I delve into the Russian language.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Rasm02
    Rasm02
    • 11
    • 7
    • 6
    • 5

    this a great guide bro!! Since you are lvl 20 in spanish... yo creo que deberías hacer una guía para hispanohablantes porque entender la lógica del inglés para poder entender la del ruso es bastante difícil. Cuál es tu idioma nativo, por cierto?

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
    olimo
    • 22
    • 22
    • 20
    • 19
    • 10
    • 9
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7

    Mi idioma nativo es ruso ;-)

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Rasm02
    Rasm02
    • 11
    • 7
    • 6
    • 5

    Eso explica mucho!! No lo hubiera notado. Your english is very neat, gratz for that!! спасибо :D

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/AshleyMiller791

    Thank you! This is very helpful!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/anneaugustine

    Thank you so much for posting this! I will certainly utilize this guide as I continue studying Russian!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/NoahShafron

    Thanks!!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Muertivo

    Very helpful, thank you!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Ryan798319

    Thank you very much for this incredibly useful guide. Спасибо

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/VicenteRiveraT
    VicenteRiveraT
    • 21
    • 17
    • 16
    • 15
    • 14
    • 4

    Olimo, спасибо большое!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/izblmllr

    This is super helpful, thank you!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/GlaucoFiorot

    thks

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/JackyDW
    JackyDW
    • 10
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7
    • 6
    • 6
    • 3
    • 2

    Большое спасибо! Этот руководство очень полезный! (I hope I got all of this right!)

    I'm so glad that these demonstratives only have one declension for plurals, unlike, say, Polish, which has something like 4 on top of the declensions of seven often irregularly declined (except feminine and feminine-ending nouns) cases (throw a vocative case in there) for the three genders.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/AleksLazo

    Большое спасибо! Это руководство очень полезно! (I hope I got all of this right!)

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
    olimo
    • 22
    • 22
    • 20
    • 19
    • 10
    • 9
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7

    Да, всё правильно!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/JackyDW
    JackyDW
    • 10
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7
    • 6
    • 6
    • 3
    • 2

    Thank you! I didn't examine all of my resources. :P

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/KelKaroly

    That clears it all up. Thanks!!!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/11JonesEm

    It is helpful - I always get this wrong in lessons and end up trying to use ето for everything

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/ivergruz777

    Ето - it is wrong. Это - it is right!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/11JonesEm

    Oh, yeah sorry.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Pimsri

    I'm confused, so how do you say "is this apple yours/ are these apples yours"?

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
    olimo
    • 22
    • 22
    • 20
    • 19
    • 10
    • 9
    • 8
    • 8
    • 7

    Это яблоко твоё? Эти яблоки твои?

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/LuluCajica

    This post clear everything! thank you a lot!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/david.wach

    Спасибо! That was a welcome, wonderful and much needed explanation.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/ledijojo

    Brilliant explanation! Thanks!

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Amy.Gower

    Thank you for this it is helping me understand Russian better.

    2 years ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/ideldoofer

    wow I never realized there were so many

    2 years ago

    [deactivated user]

      that was awesome thank you

      2 years ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/Edcitoo
      EdcitooPlus
      • 18
      • 15
      • 11
      • 4
      • 3

      Молодец! Спасибо!

      2 years ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/larksong2

      this helps a lot!

      2 years ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/larksong2

      спасибо

      2 years ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/Youngjin658865
      Youngjin658865
      • 15
      • 13
      • 13
      • 12
      • 11
      • 10
      • 9
      • 7
      • 6
      • 4

      This is exactly what I've been looking for. Thanks a million!

      1 year ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/aronald2

      It seems like a good way of understand the distinction between the demonstrative pronoun and the demonstrative adjective is to describe a neutral object that can take the form of any object (not considering anything in particular):

      это собака (this neutral object that happens to be a dog)

      Whereas the adjective-form describes something unique or in particular:

      эта тетрадь (this exact notebook)

      1 year ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/Taal-Irma
      Taal-Irma
      • 25
      • 25
      • 668

      Oh yes, you helped me a lot. Thank you so much

      1 year ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/Emathor
      Emathor
      • 19
      • 10
      • 9
      • 6
      • 6

      Thanks!

      1 year ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/Nicaman.v

      great information, thanks

      1 year ago

      https://www.duolingo.com/Duo.name

      How do you insert pictures in articles, like that table at the end?

      1 year ago

      [deactivated user]

        You can use the Markdown syntax for images:

        ![fallback text](image URL)

        The fallback text will be used when the reader can't see the image. For example, when your image was deleted, when a reader’s internet connection is too slow and the image wasn’t loaded, or when a reader uses a screen-reader. It’s advised to include fallback text for all the images you use, because otherwise you make the Internet less welcoming for many people: people will know they are missing something, but won’t know what exactly.

        The image URL should start with https:// or http:// or //. If you want to use a file from your computer, you need upload it on some server in the internet, and then use the URL of that image. olimo used Dropbox to upload the image. I personally tend to use Imageup.ru. When writing the image URL, make sure you reference the image directly, and not the page with that image. I.e. your Image URL should normally end in .jpg, .jpeg, .png, or .gif, but not in .html.

        For example, to show the Wikipedia logo, you can use the following:

        ![Russian Wikipedia logo](https://en.wikipedia.org/static/images/project-logos/ruwiki.png)

        And it will be displayed this way:

        Russian Wikipedia logo

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Duo.name

        thank you picture in many languages

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/EMarieNYC

        This is excellent and informative, and super helpful. Thank you!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Corinder1
        Corinder1
        • 12
        • 10
        • 3
        • 15

        THANK YOU!! I'm just starting Russian and this helps me alot :3

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/ScarletteR707

        You are like an angel who cleared my confusion when i needed it the most! Thank you for this perfect guide!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/ScarletteR707

        Thank you. This really helped me a lot especially that i was confused! 2 thumbs up!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
        Jeffrey855877
        • 25
        • 25
        • 25
        • 17
        • 6
        • 851

        The link to the image for the declension of это table is broken. The image doesn't appear to be there any more or the site no longer exists. Does anyone have a different link to the same image>

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Willwsharp

        This explains it so well, thank you!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/vilger
        vilger
        • 12
        • 10
        • 9
        • 6
        • 5
        • 4
        • 2
        • 2

        Very good guide, Tks!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/ValDip
        ValDip
        • 7
        • 6
        • 2
        • 2

        thanks a lot for so useful suggestions!:)

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/detailaddict

        What happened to the table? I was hoping to figure out what этой is...I assume it's prepositional feminine, based upon the context - ?

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/olimo
        olimo
        • 22
        • 22
        • 20
        • 19
        • 10
        • 9
        • 8
        • 8
        • 7

        Sorry, this is something in Dropbox, and I can't insert it as a picture anymore. For now, I inserted a hyperlink.

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/AnanDuo72

        Cool. I can know more about Russian !!!!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Corinder1
        Corinder1
        • 12
        • 10
        • 3
        • 15

        Thank you!! :D

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/JaDonny
        JaDonny
        • 15
        • 15
        • 11
        • 8
        • 5
        • 12

        Good Thank you

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/MargritKos1
        MargritKos1
        • 25
        • 22
        • 10
        • 513

        Спасибо

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/OrenGalaxy

        Большое спасибо

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Mickey1215
        Mickey1215
        • 13
        • 5
        • 5
        • 4
        • 3
        • 2

        sweet, thanks so much!

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/WilmerEHen

        Thanks. I was very confused.

        1 year ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/-Dastymn.Gly
        -Dastymn.Gly
        • 15
        • 9
        • 5
        • 4
        • 4
        • 2
        • 2

        Very Good !

        11 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Mat340620
        Mat340620
        • 13
        • 7
        • 6
        • 5
        • 3
        • 3
        • 2
        • 2
        • 2
        • 2

        thank you for information

        11 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/mnj.

        Very easy to understand if you understand some spanish grammar as well

        11 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Ibrahim.Nassif

        `Thanks for this.

        10 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/EdwardOyelade

        Wonderful

        10 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Piper755347

        Wow, you are the bomb. So helpful! Thank you, thank you, thank you!!

        7 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Ace132652

        If эти is for Plural Nouns, why did you say "Это книги." ? is that a typo or correct?

        7 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/MahmoodAman

        Спасибо большое. Мне нравится твоё комментарии.

        4 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/--dylan--

        spasibo tavorisch!

        3 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/bwhite8115

        Very helpful! Спасибо!

        2 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/CesarDReal

        What would этом mean?

        2 months ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/Elyakiwi

        This is super-helpful. I can see that. Yet I still struggle because I do not understand the terms 'Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Instrumental and Prepostional. Whenever I have tried to find an explanation, I find these terms are described with the use of other terms I am equally unfamiliar with. Within an arena of native English speakers, English has always been my 'strong subject' and I have consistently been 'above average' but I begin to suspect it is more 'instinct' than learning. Much as a piano player can be taught with great skill and exactitude while a few others simply sit, play and amaze us with unlearned ability. I am hoping that as I plod through, since I am bamboozled by English grammatical terms, I might find my instinct for русский язык simply kicks in. In the meantime, I read many of your explanations, Olimo, and appreciate them very much. It is my hope that I shall, by some marvellous process of linguistic osmosis, eventually chock up some authentic ability. This will not be without the kindness demonstrated by yourself and others who take the time to explain and share your skills with those of us who require a lot of coaching! Please accept this as a sincere expression of gratitude!

        1 month ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/TbzTbz1

        Thank you very much. it is really helpful for me.

        2 weeks ago

        https://www.duolingo.com/swissalpo2
        swissalpo2
        • 25
        • 25
        • 23
        • 22
        • 16
        • 16
        • 15
        • 12
        • 10
        • 2
        • 1385

        Great post. Very helpful explanation. Очень спасибо

        1 week ago
        Learn Russian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.