Maybe it can be interesting for someone. I often cook shchi (щи) and borsch (борщ). In shchi the main ingredient is cabbage, then potatoes, carrot,onion, parsley in a beef broth. In borcsh the main ingredient are beets plus potatoes, carrots, onions, parsley and again in broth of meat. Щи из капусты, а борщ из свеклы. Some people cook schi with sauerkraut! But is not for me! My granny loved to eat schi, wich she cooked three days ago. "трёхсуточные щи" It is the tradition of the people, who lived in the first half of the 20th century.
Sorry for the mistakes. I feel, that my mistakes are here :)) Fun and knowledge for everyone!))
In Poland we have a soup called "white borscht" that is not borscht at all but fermented cereals, it is a bit sour but very yummy, and served with hard boiled egg and sausage. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Slavic_fermented_cereal_soups
Verbs with prefixes like "при-" are usually (not always) an indicator that the verb is in its perfective form/aspect. http://www.russianlessons.net/grammar/verbs_aspect.php
"Надо готовить щи" is correct as well, and I think it should be accepted here.
However, these phrases have different meanings: "надо приготовить" - "need to cook (to the end, the whole dish, completely)"; "надо готовить" - "need to cook (just cook, when we use this phrase we don't emphasize that we need to cook it completely. Maybe we should, but we don't say it).
So, no, all forms are correct after "надо".
Such an interesting thing.
Hm, I understand you. I suppose it is really hard to distinguish them.
The simpliest rule is so: If the action took place at the definite time – a day or an hour – and we know its result, we are interested in its result – we take the perfective aspect. Perfective aspect is more frequent than Imperfect.
Just remember: do you need to know the result (is it important for you)? If yes, take Perfective.
Remember that Perfective verbs are not used in Present time - it cannot be done (because it is only Present time, not Past) and we don't know the result.
Here are some examples: (cursive letters are stressed)
Я купила вкусный торт – вот он, давай его съедим! - I bought a delicious cake - here it is, let us eat it (up) - You bought the cake, we use Perfective since you have already bought it, the action is done, you already see the cake. You suggest eating it - if you want to eat it up (all the cake), you use "съесть".
Друзья посмотрели новый фильм вчера – фильм им очень понравился. - The friends watched a new film yesterday - they really liked the film. (They have watched it, we know the result)
Your last comment was very useful, thank you! (I answer here because Duolingo won't let me reply to the other one). The only thing that's still not quite clear to me is how I'd go about translating these verb aspects.
Am I correct to say that an imperfective aspect in the past translates to past continuous situations in english (for example, я покупал = I was buying; я ел = I was eating) and perfective forms roughly equal present perfect (я купил = I have bought; я съел = I ate/have eaten)? If so, is there an equivalent of the simple past, that is "I bought"; or "I ate" in english?
Same situation in the future: would "я буду есть" mean "I'm going to eat" or something more like "I will be eating"? And what about "я съем" (my intuition tells me it's "I will have eaten" but I want to check it)?
Thanks again for your help so far!
You are welcome!! I am glad that my thoughts are helpful!
Your thoughts are correct. You are right. But there is a problem. Unfortunately, the verb tense systems in English and in Russian are too different, so it is very difficult to translate easily.
Of course, we know that the English continuous tense verbs are always imperfective in Russian, the English perfect tense verbs are always perfective verbs in Russian. But what about simple tense verbs? And here are the problems ;) Because it can be both perfective and imperfective in Russian. There is no an exact clue to learn how to translate it. So, I think that only context, only the sense that is in the sentence can help us to translate it. If you are not really sure, always translate these verbs to simple tense - you won't make a mistake.
"Мне надо готовить" означает, что надо готовить прямо сейчас, и я, скорее всего, уже готовлю или собираюсь это делать прямо сейчас. Например, "Я очень устала, но мне надо готовить щи (do smth else), мне за это платят" или "Не отвлекай меня, мне надо /do smth/, потому что у меня мало времени". В этом же значении употребляется и "Мне надо приготовить", правда, с другим оттенком, например, "Скоро придут гости, надо приготовить для них что-нибудь". Но совершенный вид применяется и для другого. Он используется при планировании дел. Например, при составлении меню на ужин: "Надо приготовить щи, картофельное пюре, гуляш, салаты, порезать фрукты, нарядить ёлку)", "Надо сделать домашнее задание до завтра", "Надо купить подарки к празднику". Надеюсь, понятно. Я из России)
"мне" (dative) works more or less like English "to me" "for me", like you "receive" the action.
Now, this "мне" is not related to "приготовить", but to the verb to be (which is implicit in the present tense most of the time in Russian).
"мне надо" = "мне (есть) надо" = (It) is necessary for me.
The rest of the sentence actually fills the "it" that is necessary for me: "приготовить щи" = "Cooking Shchi", which works a subject in the sentence ("приготовить" is working here sort of as an "action", and not a "verb").
This method of using "<Something> is necessary for me" instead of the typical English way "I need <Something>" seems to be very common in Russian with a lot of verbs (like "to need").
Similarly "Нам надо" would work as "we need" for the same reasons, etc.
I agree, for "names" they should let us use any word that makes the same sound . after all this word and a lot of other names don't really have counterparts in English . I like to think they are always adding more acceptable words but it may take time especially this course still in Beta . Another thing I noticed is that the notes don't look as clear as the notes in the other courses I tried, I think they were trying to make them short . but I would prefer long well explained notes with examples ( Like the ones in the French course which are good enough to make a textbook)
But disregarding these small stuff , I really love this course and the way it tackles new ideas in the Russian language . I tried to learn Russian many times before from English and Arabic . Never found it as understandable as today . they did a great job.
The point of Russian language is that every rule has exeptions (okay, may be 99.9% of the rules). Native speakers are studing Russian in schools during 11 years and still make lots of mistakes (in spelling, in punctuation (punctuation is a separate true hell of Russian) and sometimes in grammar). The notes might not look clear because the DL team was trying to make them as much general as possible, not taking into account every exeption or single case. But to be honest even I was surprised about how understandable the "Tips and notes" are, and I'm sure when the course finishes its beta life it will be even better.
If you're using DL on an android tablet, you can access more features by signing into the website in a browser (e.g.Chrome or Firefox), then selecting "View Full Site" from the menu at top left. This gives you most of the features of the desktop versions (course notes, etc) but with the ease of switching languages on a soft keyboard.
"щи" is just a traditional name for this soup. I guess DL just want you to remember the name because nobody in Russia or Russian speaking countries call shchi "cabbage soup". To be honest, I hadn't known the main ingredient of this soup before I turned nine or ten - just because "shchi" is "shchi" :)
It seems that you are indeed right, and beetroot is clearly the main ingredient of Борщ. Adding cabbage into the mix seems to be very common though.
My main point is still valid, that щи and борщ are names for typical dishes with a certain preparation. I don't know if a "cabbage soup" with just cabbage, water and nothing else, could be called щи; but I doubt it based on wikipedia's line "Shchi is a Russian style of cabbage soup."
It would be in a sense like calling pizza "Cooked bread with cheese and tomato". It is not really the same.
a) Приготовит (no ь) is the future perfective of приготовить. So Duo probably thought you said something like, "I need to will have cooked shchi." (I don't know if надо works with future perfect. Haven't gotten there yet on the tree.)
b) Do you use the standard Russian keyboard or the mnemonic layout? On the standard keyboard, it will be somewhere up in the northeast of your keyboard.- I believe the o key on a standard qwerty. If you use the mnemonic layout, you will type the s followed by the c, and the combination of the letters will bring out the щ.
If you guys allow me to ask something. I'm still trying to understand aspects, and I know a song which has a line that says:
За каждый миг, который проживу я.
which is translated as: "For every moment that I live."
Now I ask you: why is it using the perfective (Прожить) in the present time?
Thanks in advance
For those interested in the song, this is the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7C2MKoBL7Q
OK, I'll stick my neck out and try to answer that :-) Because it's not "for every moment that I'm in the middle of living right now" - that obviously doesn't make much sense. It's "for every moment that I will live through" - one-time, completed action for each moment.
Not bad, by the way :-) I've heard this song before but I don't remember where.