"On this table there are soup, juice and apples."

Translation:На этом столе суп, сок и яблоки.

3 years ago

2 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/elislibrand

I don't see why it is 'этом' here, can someone explain it?

3 years ago

[deactivated user]

    «Этом» is this. It's a form of «этот» in Prepositional case.

    Russian nouns (like стол 'table', суп 'soup', сок 'juice' and яблоко 'apple'), adjectives, adjectival pronouns (like 'этот') and nominal pronouns (like 'я') have different case forms.

    When the word is used as a subject of the sentence, we use the Nominative case form, 'этот':

    • Этот стол большой. This table is big.
    • Этот суп — щи. This soup is shchi.
    • Этот сок вкусный. This juice is tasty.
    • Это яблоко вкусное. This apple is tasty. (We use это instead of этот, and вкусное instead of вкусный, because стол, суп and сок are masculine in Russian, while яблоко 'apple' is neutral. You can usually tell it by the ending — neutrals have -о and -е in Nominative singular. Also, dictionaries usually tell the gender of the nouns).

    However, after prepositions we usually don't use Nominative case. The case used after a preposition depends on a preposition, but often we use the Prepositional case (also called Locative). Prepositions like на 'on', в 'in', о 'about' use Prepositional case:

    • На этом столе лежит лист бумаги. A sheet of paper lies on this table. (Literally: 'On this table, lies sheet of-paper'. «Этом столе» is in prepositional case; «лист» is in Nominative case, because it's the subject. «Бумаги» is the Genitive case, it corresponds to the English preposition 'of' in this sentence.)
    • В этом супе много укропа. (There's a lot of dill in this soup. Literally: in this soup a-lot of-dill. «Этом супе» is in Prepositional case, «укропа» is in Genitive case.)
    • В этом соке много витаминов. (There're a lot of vitamins in this juice. Literally: In this juice a-lot of-vitamins. «Этом соке» is in Prepositinal case, «витаминов» is in Genitive case.)
    • В этом яблоке червяк! (There's a worm in this apple! Literally: in this apple worm. «Этом яблоке» is in prepositional case, «червяк» is in Nominative case)

    To see the different case-forms, you can use Wiktionary. Search for a Russian word, like https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%8F%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%BE , and click on the 'Declension of я́блоко' box to show different forms. It may seem a bit intimidating at first, but don't worry: most words follow regular patterns and you don't need to learn all the forms of every word, just the patterns.

    Hope that explains it.

    If you don't understand why этом and not это is used here, please see the guide to using это: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11536858

    3 years ago
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