"On this table there are soup, juice and apples."
Translation:На этом столе суп, сок и яблоки.
«Этом» is this. It's a form of «этот» in Prepositional case.
Russian nouns (like стол 'table', суп 'soup', сок 'juice' and яблоко 'apple'), adjectives, adjectival pronouns (like 'этот') and nominal pronouns (like 'я') have different case forms.
When the word is used as a subject of the sentence, we use the Nominative case form, 'этот':
- Этот стол большой. This table is big.
- Этот суп — щи. This soup is shchi.
- Этот сок вкусный. This juice is tasty.
- Это яблоко вкусное. This apple is tasty. (We use это instead of этот, and вкусное instead of вкусный, because стол, суп and сок are masculine in Russian, while яблоко 'apple' is neutral. You can usually tell it by the ending — neutrals have -о and -е in Nominative singular. Also, dictionaries usually tell the gender of the nouns).
However, after prepositions we usually don't use Nominative case. The case used after a preposition depends on a preposition, but often we use the Prepositional case (also called Locative). Prepositions like на 'on', в 'in', о 'about' use Prepositional case:
- На этом столе лежит лист бумаги. A sheet of paper lies on this table. (Literally: 'On this table, lies sheet of-paper'. «Этом столе» is in prepositional case; «лист» is in Nominative case, because it's the subject. «Бумаги» is the Genitive case, it corresponds to the English preposition 'of' in this sentence.)
- В этом супе много укропа. (There's a lot of dill in this soup. Literally: in this soup a-lot of-dill. «Этом супе» is in Prepositional case, «укропа» is in Genitive case.)
- В этом соке много витаминов. (There're a lot of vitamins in this juice. Literally: In this juice a-lot of-vitamins. «Этом соке» is in Prepositinal case, «витаминов» is in Genitive case.)
- В этом яблоке червяк! (There's a worm in this apple! Literally: in this apple worm. «Этом яблоке» is in prepositional case, «червяк» is in Nominative case)
To see the different case-forms, you can use Wiktionary. Search for a Russian word, like https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%8F%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%BE , and click on the 'Declension of я́блоко' box to show different forms. It may seem a bit intimidating at first, but don't worry: most words follow regular patterns and you don't need to learn all the forms of every word, just the patterns.
Hope that explains it.
If you don't understand why этом and not это is used here, please see the guide to using это: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11536858
From what I understand, and I am far from an expert, it is required in some specific situations, when in English we would use the indefinite article, and omitted in others, like when referring to body parts. I think there is an element of nuance as well.
From observation, I have noticed it has been omitted in situations where from context or a preceding clause, the location of the subject is definite. This may be why it works for body parts, since one's nose is located on one's face.
I assume in this example, the reference to a specific table (На этом столе) means that the location, and existence of the subject is definite.
Admittedly a guess but I have seen this pattern. I will yield to a more knowledgeable responder.
its technically not -wrong-, but its not right either. most of the time, есть is omitted if it would be implied or assumed to be there already--you really are only supposed to use it when asking a question if something is there/someone has it or not, as it is not certain to be in possession/be there in that case. hope this helps!
это необычно, но принято
There is soup, juice and apples on the table. There are apples, soup and juice on the table.
Sorry, despite being a native English speaker, I really don't know the rule regarding the correct conjugation of the verb "to be" when it applies to mass nouns. These examples just sound right to me.