No, "This is mom's book" would be «Э́то ма́мина кни́га» or «Э́то кни́га ма́мы».
«От» governs the Genitive. You'll just have to remember this, preposition+case pairings are rather arbitrary.
I'm sorry but I honestly don't know... doesn't "this book" count as accusative and should use "эту книгу"? I'm really confused. I put "The book is from mom" and it was marked wrong.
The Accusative is used for the direct object, that is, something that receives the action of a verb. In English, that can be seen in the usage of him over he in the sentence “I see him”.
Formally speaking, «эта книга» is the subject (the verb is “is”), so we use the Nominative. If you'd prefer an analogy, that's the same reason why you say “I am back”, not “me am back” in English (in «эта книга — от мамы» the Russian structure basically mirrors that of the English translation, even if that's not always the case).
Thanks for taking the time to explain it... I'll keep this in mind when completing/reviewing lessons. Here's my lingot.
In short, no. In many cases de is not translated with от:
- tarjeta de visita = визи́тная ка́рточка («de» is translated with an adjective formed from the noun),
- idiomas de España = языки́ Испа́нии («de» is translated with a genitive case of the noun),
- canción de amor = пе́сня про любо́вь («de» is translated with «про» or «о»),
- mesa de madera = стол из де́рева («de» is translated with «из»),
- Premio Reina Sofía de Poesía Iberoamericana = Пре́мия короле́вы Софи́и по ибѐроамерика́нской поэ́зии («de» is translated with «по»).
While sometimes de can be translated as от, it's usage is different.
In this very example, «un libro de mamá» can be translated in 2 different ways:
- un libro de mamá = кни́га ма́мы 'a Mom's book' (you use genitive to show that this book belongs to Mom or was written by Mom),
- un libro de mamá = кни́га от ма́мы 'a book from Mom' (you use от to show the book was obtained from Mom; maybe she gave it to you as a present).
I think «un libro de mamá» can also mean it's 'a book about Mum', then it would be translated «кни́га про ма́му» or «кни́га о ма́ме». But I'm not sure this is a possible translation, my Spanish is not good enough.
Un libro de mamá, could also mean a book about mom, i think it would be prefectly fine and gramatically correct also, but you could also say" un libro acerca de mamá" and thay would be книга о маме in russian.
Whose mom is it? Is it my mom, his/her mom or our mom in this case? Can we tell the difference?
In Russian, we can’t.
In English, we often add possessive pronouns where Russian omits them. The most obvious example is «я чищу зубы» ‘I’m brushing my teeth’. In English, it often sounds more natural to add a possessive pronoun. In Russian, they are used more sparingly.
But, of course, there’s nothing wrong with adding a possessive pronoun if the context doesn’t make it clear:
- от мое́й ма́мы = from my mum,
- от твое́й ма́мы = from your mum (when addressing one person you’re on friendly terms with),
- от её ма́мы = from her mum,
- от его́ ма́мы = from his mum,
- от на́шей ма́мы = from our mum,
- от ва́шей ма́мы = from your mum (when addressing several people, or when addressing one person you don’t know too well),
- от и́х ма́мы = from their mum.