Пьёт is third person singular - he drinks. Пьёшь is second person singular (informal) - you drink. You can enter any form of a word here to see the full conjugation table, though you need to use е instead of ё. http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/morphque.cgi?flags=endnnnnp
The word «что» is an exception, it's pronounced as if it's written «што». «ш» is a complex sound that is roughly similar to English sh. In most other cases Ч is pronouned similar to the English ch.
Ё is pronounced /jo/ after ь.
Of course no. Russian speakers only have one drink, vodka, so we don't need to ask such questions. If someone's drinking, it's obvious he's drinking водка. We even give vodka for out pet bears to drink. ;) (Sometimes we also drink water, вода, but водка is the diminutive form of вода, so it's really almost the same word. Diminutive expresses kindness in this case. We use the diminutive form to show that водка and that it is the preferred form of вода.)
Jokes aside, it's probably as often used as the English sentence. Probably not so often (because we don't ask what other people are drinking every day), but if you want to ask what beverage someone is drinking, you'd use this question.
Yes, «к» was originally a diminutive suffix:
- слез-а ‘tear’ + -к- diminutive suffix → слёзка ‘a little tear’,
- земл-я ‘land’ (which is root зем[e]ль- + ending -а) + -к- → земе́лька ‘a dear/cute land’,
- ку́ч-a ‘pile, heap’ + -к- → ку́чка ‘a small pile’.
However, a bare -к- diminutive is not normally used nowadays as diminutive. Most diminutive words formed this way were created in the past. In the modern language, the diminutives created with bare -к- often sounds rude, especially when used about people:
- де́в-а ‘virgin, maiden, Virgo’ + -к- → де́вка impolite word for ‘girl’,
- ма́м-а ‘mum’ + -к- → ма́мка impolite word for ‘mother’ (you would use that when insulting someone’s mother),
- Ве́ра ‘Vera (female name)’ + -к- → Ве́рка impolite variant of the name Vera.
To form diminutives in modern language, we usually combine -к- with other suffixes:
- дева ‘virgin, maiden, Virgo’ + -очк- ‘diminutive suffix’ → де́вочка ‘girl’
- ма́ма ‘mum’ + -очк- ‘diminutive suffix’ → ма́мочка ‘Mummy’
Actually, -очк- was originally formed as two -к- stacked together! The -о- is the fill vowel, and к becomes ч before another к suffix:
- во́дка ‘vodka’ + -к- → во́дочка diminutive form of ‘vodka’.
Since во́дка and во́дочка are taken to mean ‘vodka’, to form a modern diminutive of вода́, you need to use a different suffix alltogether — -ичк-:
- вода́ ‘water’ + -ичк- → води́чка diminutive of ‘water’.
No. The word order is almost the same as in statements, except that the question word comes at the beginning.
Since the statement here would be «Он пьёт (чай)», for example, to make it into a verb we add a question verb at the beginning, and we get «Что он пьёт?».