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No wonder. Воскресение also (and primarily) means "resurrection", "rising from the dead", hence it is used for both Easter (Светлое Христово воскресенье) and Sunday. Before Russia was Christianized, the word седмица ('a set of seven days') was used for "week" and the word неделя (which comes from "ничего не делать" = "to do nothing") meant Sunday.
Я following a vowel is only pronounced "yah" when it is stressed, e.g. in words моя, твоя, маяк, змея, струя and the like, but in adjectival endings it is never stressed, so the last syllables in прошлая are pronounced close to "-shley" in Ashley. In a fast speech the words прошлая, прошлое, прошлый and прошлые sound the same.
One phonetical feature of the Russian language is the so-called reduction of vowels. It means that in an unstressed syllable O sounds the same as A and E is no different from Я. Unless the unstressed syllable precedes the stressed one, any of the four letters in it stands for the shwa sound with a hint to /j/ (as 'y' in 'you') consontant before it in the case of E and Я following another vowel. Thus there is not supposed to be any difference in pronunciation between ПРОШЛОЕ (the neuter form) and ПРОШЛАЯ (the feminine form) except in some northern dialects. In an unstressed syllable preceding the stressed one О and A are both pronounced as 'uh', whereas E, И and Я are pronounced as 'e' in 'economy'
The word прошлый (прошлое, прошлая, прошлые - depending on the number and gender of the following noun) is used with nouns век, год, месяц, неделя and ночь to mean "last" (no article). It can also be used with days of the week, for example, "в прошлую среду" = "last Wednesday". Последний means "the last" as in "the last time" (which is not necessarily final).
You’re right. In old Russian, неделя meant Sunday - день, когда можно ничего не делать. With the advent of Christianity to Russia, the word воскресение (resurrection, or rising from the dead) was adopted for Sunday, whereas «неделя» changed its meaning to “a week”. In most other Slavic languages, the word similar to неделя still means Sunday.
It is usually 12 usual forms, 4 short forms and 1 comparative. Superlatives, though... They are usually formed analytically (i.e., by adding "most"), but there are 2 options for adding affixes: just -айший/-ейший or same, but with наи- at the beginning (e.g., длинный→длиннейший, наидлиннейший). These are fairly bookish and are bookish even in books.
Here is the listing of forms of лёгкий:
- 12 gender/number/case forms: лёгкий, лёгкая, лёгкое, лёгкие, лёгкого, лёгком, лёгкому, лёгким, лёгкую, лёгкой, лёгких, лёгкими
- short predicate forms: лёгок, легка, легко, легки
- comparative: легче
- superlative: (наи)легчайший. Or самый лёгкий / легче всех / легче всего
It's the end of my poor brain as I know it! :( A thrill nevertheless!