You're right, the Accusative form of the «сок» is «сок» (and not «сока») because it's inanimate. For the source, look up any declension table, e.g. here: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BA#Russian
However, for uncountable nouns, both Accusative and Genitive are allowed for the objects (and this is what slycelote is talking about). They are both allowed, but there's slight difference in meaning:
- In «Я хочу сок», «сок» means the thing as a whole (which roughly corresponds to 'the juice', because obviously you canʼt drink all the juice in the world!),
- while in «Я хочу сока», «сока» means 'some juice'.
However, «сока» here is not accusative, it's genitive.
What are you sources? Here are mine:
I checked my Oxford Russian dictionary, and it looks like you're correct that хотеть can take the genitive in that way, to mean something less concrete. It's also common to use it in the partitive sense that szeraja_zhaba posted.
I think, in this case, accusative is more appropriate for most meanings of the English sentence. If you're at a restaurant, or at a grocery store, you'd probably use the accusative: at the restaurant, there's a particular juice you have in mind, and at the grocery store, you may not have a particular kind of juice in mind, but there's juice, and you know you want it. If you were sitting on the couch and musing about what to put on the shopping list, that's when I would use the genitive to mark abstract.
Is that accurate?
Well, "juice" is uncountable and therefore it mostly is without the undefinite article. However, I would actually accept it here anyway because this sentence could have been in a restaurant where I have just ordered "a juice", which is proper English, as far as I (nonnative speaker) know.
A couple of questions.... Can someone explain how we get to "хочу", is the nominative form not "хотеть" - If so I don't see how it changes to хочу, also same question for "видит" / "вижу", again isn't the nominative form "видеть"
Also is there a resource where you can look up the nominative form of an already declined word, as that would answer this question for me in future.
Also, the Duolingo tips and notes for accusative say basically the noun been acted on takes the accusative case, but I keep seeing the verb (Like, see and want, taking the accusative case as well as the noun. Is this always the case, Both the verb acting on and noun been acted on take the case?
Example - Я вижу маму or Я вижу воду
There's no such thing as "nominative" or "accusative" for the verbs. Cases are for nouns and adjectives. The verb conjugation is completely different. Verbs change their form depending on who does the action: "I", "singular you", "he/she/it", "we", "plural you" or "they". English has a remnant of such a system in verbs having an "-s" ending in the third person singular form ("I want", but "she wants"). Whereas in Russian every form is different:
Хотеть/видеть - To want/see
Я хочу/вижу - I want/see
Ты хочешь/видишь - You (one person) want/see
Он/она/оно хочет/видит - He/she/it wants/sees
Мы хотим/видим - We want/see
Вы хотите/видите - You (several people) want/see
Они хотят/видят - They want/see.
The Russian sentence has one verb...want.
Your sentence has two verbs ....do want. Nothing wrong grammatically with adding an extra verb for emphasis but emphasis is not included in the sentence you were given to translate.
It is common to add do in the English translation of Russian questions because that is how English questions are typically phrased. Do is added to relieve the burden of using tone of voice to indicate a question.
But that doesn't apply in an English declarative statement. It is quite common to say you want something in English without adding an extra do verb. Adding do makes it seem like you are trying to overcome doubt about whether you want something or not. There is no element of doubt in the Russian example.
Russian Ч is always soft. So, чу and чю are pronounced in the same way: it’s always pronounced чю, but usually written «чу» (except in Lithuanian names like Чюрлёнис ‘Čiurlionis’).
хоте́ть (xotétʹ) [xɐˈtʲetʲ] impf (perfective захоте́ть) "to want, to desire" From Old East Slavic хотѣти (xotěti), from Proto-Slavic *xotěti (Old Church Slavonic хотѣти (xotěti)). Cognate with Bulgarian ща (šta), Serbo-Croatian хтети, hteti, Polish chcieć, Slovak chcieť). This Proto-Slavic verb is found in two variants, with *xot- and *xъt-. The inflection probably contained both stems in alternation, possibly like *bьrati ~ beretь. However, the original distribution of the two stem alternants is unknown, so both are treated as separate lemmas. West Slavic and Bulgarian have generalized the stem *xъt-, while East Slavic has generalized *xot-. Slovene preserves both as independent verbs, but only the latter is standard and still widely used. Serbo-Croatian preserves both stems alternating within a single paradigm; possibly an archaism. Wiktionary
When you say you are finding it difficult to reply in Russian on Duo, that makes it sound like you have your keyboard set up to type letters from the Cyrillic alphabet.
If you mean that you actually are not typing Russian but using a typical English language keyboard setup and are using English language letters to somehow mimic Russian letters, then yes it will get increasingly difficult. In my view it is almost impossible to learn Russian if you cannot type the Cyrillic alphabet.
Not sure if you know the basics so I will go over them.
Computer systems give you the option of choosing what language your keyboard will work in. They can't change the letters that appear on the physical keyboard of course but they change what letters actually get typed when you strike a key. What you are doing in that process is choosing which map your keyboard keys will follow. At least some of the keys will produce letters that are different from the character displayed on the surface of the key.
When you choose which language will be displayed when you type, you are provided with a method to switch between your selected languages. The most common method is to have a key combination that when pressed switches between languages. That is called toggling.
On a windows setup like mine set to Cyrillic, when I type the letter S on my keyboard it produces Ы. Some letters are the same but many are completely different. Apple has a different map but the results are the same. You can choose which alphabet will display when you type on your keyboard.
All that means that you will have to learn to type on what amounts to a new keyboard layout. If you can already touch type, then a couple of weeks of a half hour a day practice will get you to the level you need to be able to meet Duo requirements. It will be the easiest thing you do if you are going to make a serious attempt to learn Russian.
There are several free programs available on the internet to learn touch typing in the Cyrillic alphabet.
Your computer already has the capability to load in any language of your choice and map the keyboard appropriately as well as a simple method of switching between them. You simply have to tell your computer to do it. On a windows setup that is about three of four steps. It is probably simpler on an apple.
Search on the internet for how to add Russian to your apple keyboard. I can only tell you about windows. Make sure the results are about how to load the actual Russian keyboard map. Avoid using cheater methods that let you avoid learning to type with the Cyrillic alphabet. Either you are learning Russian or you aren't. Learn to type on a Russian keyboard not an English language keyboard that you can add strange key combinations to produce a Russian letter. You will never to think in Russian if you can't visualize the word you want in Russian.