The structure of this sentence is too hard for me? Is this a common structure? Might someone give another örnek?
I'll try to break this sentence down before offering other examples, so hopefully the structure will make more sense.
Just before we start, keep in mind that "açıklama" is a verbal noun, even though (without context) it looks like a negated command: "Don't explain". Try not to panic, because context will always guide you! I highly recommend clicking the link if this is a new concept for you, because verbal nouns haven't been explained by Duo at this point in the tree :-)
- açıklamak = to explain
- açıklama = an explanation (verbal noun- see link above)
- bunu açıklama = an explanation of this
- onun açıklaması = his/her explanation
- onun bunu açıklaması = his/her explanation of this
- gerekmek = to be needed / necessary
- gerekiyor = is needed / necessary
- bir açıklama gerekiyor = an explanation is needed
- onun açıklaması gerekiyor = his/her explanation is needed
- onun bunu açıklaması gerekiyor = his/her explanation of this is needed (in other words: He/she needs to explain this!)
phew! We made it! This is a complex structure, so I wanted to break down each element before rebuilding the puzzle-pieces. Hope that helps!
When you're looking at some more examples, keep in mind that gerekmek is always conjugated in the 3rd person because it is the verbal noun (an 'it') that is "gerekiyor" ("needed"), no matter who needs it! We put a personal possessive suffix on the verbal noun to show whose need it is:
- Benim çıkmam gerekiyor = my leaving is needed = I need to leave
- Sizin beklemeniz gerekiyor = your waiting is needed = You need to wait
- Beş saat sonra kalkması gerekiyor = five hours later, his/her getting up is needed = He/she needs to get up in five hours
These examples from TurEng :-)
Does it literally translate to "His explanation of this is needed."? "Onun açıklama+sı" - his explanation - genitive. Why is bunu accusative? Is it the object of gerekiyor? Isn't açıklaması the object?
this one is a bit complicated. The subject of the sentence is "onun bunu açıklaması". So no, "açıklaması" is not the object for gerekiyor, but "bunu" is an object for "açıklaması".
Could you say
"Onun açıklaması bunu gerekiyor."? Or would this be weird?
The hardest thing to grasp for me is the placement of bunu between the possessor (onun) and the possessed (açıklaması), because the accusative object of the sentence (which usually comes right before the verb) seems to be splitting the subject here.
Like "Benim sütü kedim içiyor."
I think it's because "bunu" is the object of "açıklama", so the whole "bunu açıklama" is possessed by "onun". And the whole "onun bunu açıklaması" is "required/necessary".
As far as I understand, "onun bunu açıklaması" is a noun clause in which the verb "açıklama" acts like a noun (hence the -sı suffix).
"Gerekmek" = "be required", "be necessary".
And in Turkish the verb comes last most of the time. So you have "bunu açıklama" and then "Onun [bunu açıklama]sı gerekiyor".
I don't think "Onun açıklaması bunu gerekiyor." would make sense.
"Gerekmek" is intransive, while "gerektirmek" is transitive. So an intransitive verb cannot take a direct object. Hence "bunu gerekiyor" wouldn't make sense syntactically.
In "Benim kedim sütü içiyor." the "benim kedim" is the subject, "sütü" is the direct object and "içiyor" is the verb.
Correct me if I'm wrong, thanks.
Sorry, I still don't get it. Isn't "açıklama" a noun anyways, and the -sı suffix is just the possessive ending?
Or do you mean that "bunu açıklaması" is a noun compound, which, altough possessed by the "onun" can't get a second possessive suffix. Thinking about it, this makes sense, so thank you very much for the explanation.
But in this case I still don't understand why it is "bunu" and not "bunun" (or maybe just "bu", if it were some kind of generally used compound noun).
her this's explanation = her explanation for this, so to say.
Again, not 100% sure, but here it goes:
"bunu açıklaması" is not a noun compound, the -sı comes only from "onun".
Think of it like this: "açıklama" is a noun, the infinitive of the verb.
"O bunu açıklıyor/açıklar." = "He is explaining/explains it.".
Now you want to reference the whole action of the guy explaining it (whatever "it" is) - you want to say that this action is "required".
In English you could say "It is required [that he explains it].".
But in Turkish it's like you're saying "[His explaining (of) it] is required.". Here we made "explain" into "explaining", which acts like a noun.
If the word order was SOV (subject-object-verb), it would be "He it explains." and therefore "[His it explaining] is required.".
And in Turkish the word order is SOV (English is SVO). So "He explains it." = "O bunu açıklar.". Then you make the verb (the action) into a noun, similar to "his explaining (of) it" - "onun bunu açıklaması".
And the whole action "onun bunu açıklaması" is "required". The action is the subject, "gerekiyor" is the verb.
On another note, I think you could order the sentence like this: "Bunu onun açıklaması gerekiyor.". But still the direct object "bunu" is before "açıklama(sı)".
Here we see "Bunu senin yapman lazım.", but I think it could also be "Senin bunu yapman lazım.".
I've probably explained it incorrectly, because I haven't read that part of the grammar yet and I don't know know the correct linguistic terminology. But I hope it still makes some sense.
(I cant't answer directly anymore, as the thread is too long)
Thank you for your explanation, this clarifies a lot. I am not that advanced yet, and simply took "açıklama" as a noun like any other.
You're welcome. A lot of nouns actually come from verbs.
I think "dondurma" ("ice cream") comes from "dondurmak" ("to freeze (something)").
But they're also used in such structures as the sentence above.
I started reading "Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar". It seems like a very good book, I recommend it (even though I haven't reached the chapters on clauses yet).
I would like to add (copy) and thus to point out what RumenT is writing above as I think it's a good idea of the Turkish construction:
" ... in Turkish it's like you're saying
"[His explaining (of) it] is required." "
The literal translation of this sentence would be "His/her explaining of this is needed". But that sounds really awkward in English, so we rephrase to "He/she needs to explain this". In Turkish, when we're expressing a personal need (I need to, you need to, he needs to, etc.) we use a genitive/possessive construction with a verbal noun. (Links below for anyone confused by those words!)
So it's not "o" (he/she) that is "gerekiyor" (being needed)... it's actually "onun bunu açıklaması" ("his/her explanation of this") that is being needed. And if it were "our explanation of this": "Bizim bunu açıklamamız gerekiyor."
I hope that makes sense... But now some links in case it doesn't :-)
But for anyone who has no idea what "verbal noun" means, I recommend watching THIS lesson first :-)
And I'm sure it's drilled in to all our brains by this point in the tree, but just in case, here's is a link back to genitives and possessives
'Onun açıklaması' means 'his explaining', it is a genitive / possessive construction. In your sentence the genitive would be missing.
I hope this can be understood. :)
exactly. "Onun aciklamasi" is his explaining, but the translation there is he needs to explain. his explaining means what he currently do, while he needs to explain means he will going to do.
Ah, okay, I see, now I get your question. :)
Interesting! I thought about this and I am coming to the conclusion that for changing the tense you will change 'gerekiyor' e.g. 'gerekecek'.
Not sure at all. ;)
Yep... you could absolutely say "gerekecek" if the sentence is future tense: "He/she will need to explain this"