"Here are the tables."
My Russian girlfriend says that without additional context, knowing whether it should be вот or здесь is impossible. Can we change this to accept both already? Not to mention it's kinda rare to say "Here you go, some tables." It seems much more likely to be in a situation when someone is looking for them and you want to show them where you are.
Formally you are right - both can be translations of "here", but in practice they have slightly different meanings. "Вот" is used to demonstrate that something is here. "Здесь" is used to demonstrate that something is here. These are subtleties though - you will be understood either way.
Its just like english in a way. "I saw a man on a hill with a telescope" can be interpreted in multiple ways, five different ways actually. Or, we saw her duck. You could mean you saw a duck that belonged to her, you saw her bend quickly to avoid something or you use a saw to cut her duck.
Are these the ways?
I am on hill, i (visually) saw a man, the man possessed a telescope (grammatically awkward). From a hill, i visually saw a man who possessed a telescope.
I am on hill, i used a telescope to see a man. This occurred in past. Using a telescope on a hill, I visually saw a man.
I visually saw a man who was located on a hill, and i used a telescope to see him. Using a telescope, i visually saw a man who was located on a hill.
(Ridiculous, silly interpretations 4 to 7)... I cut a man who is located on a hill, and i use a telescope like a saw (tool) to cut him. Generally speaking, I am a person who cuts (uses a saw tool)...who or what do i cut? A man. Where do i cut? On a hill. What do i use to cut? A telescope.
Generally speaking, I am a person who cuts (uses a saw tool)...who or what do i cut? A man located on a hill. What do i use to cut? A telescope.
Generally speaking, I am a person who cuts (uses a saw tool)...who or what do i cut? A man who possesses a telescope. The man is located on a hill.
Generally speaking, I am a person who cuts (uses a saw tool)...who or what do i cut? A man. Where do i cut a man? On a hill, a hill where a telescope is located.
- I visually saw a man who was located on a particular hill, the hill that possessed or “on which was located” a telescope. I visually saw a man who was located on a hill and a telescope was located on that hill as well.
Стола и столе are different declensions of the same word - стол - and are used in accordance with different cases and contexts. Столы is the plural of стол.
Это стол. - It is a table. (Nominative) Яблоко на столе. - The apple is ON the table. (Prepositional) У меня нет стола. - I don't have a table. (Genitive)
You will learn more about when to apply these cases and how to use them as you learn the langauge further!
In principle, plurals are formed by adding -ы to the end of the word, if the word is masculine (стол -> столы), changing the -а into -ы if the word is feminine (мама -> мамы), or changing the -о of neutri into -а.
Then, there are some exceptions when the plural -ы is changed into -и, such as after certain consonants (к, г, х, ш, щ, ч, ж), or when the feminine word ends with -я instead of -а. Also, -и is used in plurals always when the singular form ends with -ь.
Plurals of neutri ending with -е are formed with -я.
Thank you. But now there is one thing more that I cannot understand - why вот здесь together? Isn't this the same meaning, so why twice? Is this more in sleng or it is just one variety? Sorry, but when I something cannot understand it annoys me. My first language is Slovenian so - it's funny to learn new languages but in some occasions it's hard to understand..
The ending depends on whether the noun has a "soft stem" or a "hard stem".
You can read more about this here:
https://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Russian/Grammar/Nominative (7 letter rule)
столы nominative case plural, стола genitive case singular masculine, столе prepositional case , стол nominative case singular. russian doesnt rely on strict word order, it uses 6 cases that change the meaning of the word. all of what you asked about means table, learn the cases it will take you far. nominative- subject, accusative- direct object, also answers the question куда. Genative- numbers of something, negation. у меня нет собак, 5 рублей, 4 рубла . prepositional- answers the question where and about. DAtive- the reciever of the action . Instrumental- the indirect object