"Ты что, не ешь хлеб?"
Translation:What, you don't eat bread?
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It emphasizes surprise. Some examples:
- Ты не ешь хлеб? You don't eat bread? / Don't you eat bread?
- Как, ты не ешь хлеб? What, you don't eat bread? (I can't explain, but "как" instead of "что" sounds better to me.)
- Ты что, не ешь хлеб? What, you don't eat bread?
- Ты не ешь хлеб, что ли? You don't eat bread, do you?
My interpretation of the English translation is that the speaker has just learned that the listener does not eat bread. The 'question' is not really a proper question, because the answer is already known. The wording is a way of expressing surprise or incredulity at that piece of information, or seeking confirmation in a "have I understood this correctly?" sort of way.
Is that the same as the Russian sentence?
If so, translations such as "don't you eat bread?" are not correct in this context.