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  5. "The girl has an apple."

"The girl has an apple."

Translation:У девочки есть яблоко.

November 8, 2015

33 Comments

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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LewysArn

Genitive case;

It's my understanding that here the girl is the possessor. The noun girl - девочка - is female.

I thought in the genitive the rule was

Female (a --> ы) so why is it (a --> и) here?

So confused.

November 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/.untouchable

Can anybody explain me when is used "есть"? Some phrases need it and some are without it...

December 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mahankr

I am not a native speaker, but as far as I understand it, the use of есть shows that there might have been some doubt about whether the object exists or not. So when you use есть, you are clearing up that doubt. You are saying that it does exist. If you know the object exists, then I think that you do not need to use есть. Like I said though, I am not a native speaker. There might be more to it. Or a better way of explaining it.

December 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/habano1711

Девочка = girl

Девочки= girls

That is right or wrong?

February 8, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Judeauwanabe

Right and wrong. It depends on the case of the noun.

February 8, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dimidov

Exactly. Russian has a case system, consisting of six different cases. One for each day of the week, except for Sunday, when they just sit around and.. okay, okay, that's a lie.

There are several cases. The case you start with "I am a girl" and "The dog eats" is the 'Nominative' case. In that case, "Я девочка" is correct. However, in this case, we are talking about something the girl has or owns. Because Russian has always done it this way, they write "x has y" as "by x, there is a y".

This, by way of magic and rules of Russian grammar, implies the use of the Genitive case. So your Nominative case word 'девочка' gets magically transformed into another case - namely the Genitive - and ends up looking slightly different. Often (but not always), the word in the Genitive case looks exactly like the Nominative plural, so keep that in mind.

Alternatively, just go here: http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/morphque.cgi?flags=endnnnnp

(Most often passed on link ever in my Russian posts. Theron126 gave it to me once, and I've been using it ever since, I'm still grateful.)

Go to this website. Input a Russian word. Any word you like. Be mindful of the fact that the Russian letter ё is not accepted, but that substituting it with the regular 'е' will still give you all the helpful goodness of the declensions.

What's a declension, you ask? Fill in a word. Go on, I dare you. Hit enter.

Now look at the page that crops up and the results. You'll notice that it has all the six names for all the six cases. And that next to it, the word you input is shown, but each time, the ending - the declension - is a little bit different! If you know the Case you're supposed to use, you can use this website to help yourself pick out the right one, until you can remember when you need to use which one. :)

February 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/omaridza

Why is it У мальчика нет яблокА. but У девочки есть яблокО.

February 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dimidov

This has to do with the cases the words go following the verb есть when negated. Look at the two sentences.

  • The boy does NOT have an apple.

  • The girl DOES have an apple.

Apple has to be written in the genitive case because it is preceded (the item being negated/whose existence is being denied) by нет. When we have the verb есть (is/exists), and it becomes нет (which is 'not is/does not exist', basically), the item/person/whathaveyou that has changed from being/existing to not being/existing, is written in genitive.

February 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/omaridza

Oh, OK. Thank you. I didn't know cases in Russian change depending on the negation. Or is it just with the verb есть? My mother tongue is Serbian and we have 7 cases, but we do not change them with negation. We say Дечак нема јабуку. (У мальчика нет яблока.) Девојчица има јабуку. (У девочки есть яблоко.) Thanks again!

February 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dimidov

It changes specifically for this verb. I have not yet seen it occur elsewhere but I think I remember reading there's like one or two other verbs where it does this, so apart from this verb, it's still pretty rare. Additional intel will have to be gathered from more knowledgeable sources, I'm afraid. :)

February 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/omaridza

Good to know that not all the verbs change like this :)

February 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/bigracc

So to confirm, if there is no negation, the object (in this case 'apple') remains in the nominative case?

June 5, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BenYoung84

Yes.

August 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChandlerMcCook

I have a question on what is owned. яблоко is singular in this case, but in other questions, such as У мамы есть брата, brother is plural. why?

October 6, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BenYoung84

У мамы есть брата actually doesn't make sense. For singular/plural. It's simply a case of whether you own singular or plural things. The problem with брата is that it's genitive case, but it should be nominative.

August 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/meag.han.solo12

What makes the У necessary? I left it out and it was wrong

October 17, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lassi492061

у is the preposition: "у меня" is like "at me" or "by me". This is a construction that exists in the Russian language due to the impact of the Finno-Ugric languages that have been spoken in vast areas of the present Russia. This corresponds to the ablative case in the Finnish language: "Minu-lla on kissa" = "у меня (есть) кошка" = "at me is a dog". The other Slavic languages use the same kind of expression as English: "I have a dog".

December 22, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lassi492061

I'm sorry: "minu-lla" is adessive, not ablative in Finnish. Ablative would be "minu-lta" = from me. But for a more thorough conversation of the Finnish language we have to wait for the day when Duolingo is offering Finnish.

December 28, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BenYoung84

I can't wait. The more I hear about Finnish the more I'm convinced it's the hardest language in the history of the universe.

August 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/majkey

Ok so without knowing the context - the version without есть also should be correct.

January 22, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kubaes

Is есть necessary here?

April 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dimidov

Yes. The existence of an apple is in question. Есть is always used in these cases because the structure of these types of sentences are "Near or by <the girl> there exists a<n apple>."

April 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Spedi880

"Девочки" are the plural ??

October 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BenYoung84

Nope, it's the genitive singular.

August 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/GIJoeski

девушка

September 30, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AndreyVini3

why not яблока ?

January 9, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lassi492061

Dimidov explains above that the genitive form яблока is used if the sentence is negative (the girl does not have an apple). Because this is an affirmative sentence (the girl has an apple), we use the nominative (basic) form яблоко.

January 9, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BenYoung84

By the girl there is an apple. "girl" is genitive because it follows the preposition "у". There is nothing to make "apple" genitive.

August 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Robert382800

How would I know the difference to "the girl has an apple" and "the girls have an apple"? They look the same to me

June 10, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BenYoung84

Remember that girl/girls will be genitive because they follow "у". Some of the genitive forms overlap with the nominative forms which can confuse some people.

The girl has an apple => У девочки есть яблоко
The girls have an apple => У девочек есть яблоко

August 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rejlmen

I think that девушка и девочка is a girl.

June 30, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/not-a-human-07

DOES SHE?

September 3, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yusifovsoner

Why plural?

October 14, 2019, 8:07 AM
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