"вот" is used when you want to point at something or when you are handing things to others.
"Здесь" is more about location and it means "here/at this place".
Here are (вот) a few examples that illustrate the difference. No pun intended :-)
Вот зонтик. = Here's the umbrella. Зонтик здесь. = The umbrella is here.
Передай, пожалуйста, соль. Вот! = Pass me the salt, please. Here you are! Где соль? Здесь, на столе. = Where's the salt? Here, at the table.
I feel that "вот" contains an imperative "look here"... It seeks to draw your attention to something, like 'voici' in French (litterally see here). Whereas здесь just refers to the location "here" without any further implication. The difficulty for English-speaking is that they don't have a word like that (maybe behold but it's a bit outdated :) ), they have to use a periphrase and since most unexperienced language learners tend to equate words with words (which is a huge mistake) they don't get this.
It's like in every language except for English I guess for example French Spanish German Dutch Danish (I dunno for sure actually but I think it is (So for anyone out there who learns Russian from another language you could maybe learn it easier though your language then through English))
Hello, I am very new at Russian language, but have already seen similar questions. I understand нет is "No", at the beginning of sentence, не is "not" in the middle. In spanish or portuguese is the same work ("no", or "não"), but in French I would say нет is "Non", and не is "ne ___ pas". In German нет is "Nein" and не is "nicht". Is that confusing enough??!! kkkk
Close but you can easily put нет in the middle or end of a sentence and retain the meaning (in that case, it would be comparable to "kein" in German), as in У меня нет книг or У меня книги нет (I don't have any books or I don't have the book).
edit: Actually you could even use it at the end of the sentence in this ... sentence, as well (instead of Она не здесь you could simply say Ее нет).
In a lot of translit systems you'd use the apostrophe to denote a soft sign, like zdes' but DuoLingo doesn't like that for some reason. I've found that 9 times out of 10 you can omit it altogether and write zdes, at which point the program will accept your answer but tell you there was a typo in it.
Mostly memorization. Sometimes you can learn patterns and rules, though. For instance the prefix "от-" (like in the word "отходить") is usually never (if ever) stressed, so you know if a word starts with the sound "ought", then it's gonna be от.
Or if the stem is spelled with o's then you know any words formed with that are gonna be spelled with o's too. For instance, the word СПОсоб becomes споСОБный (capital letters are stressed). Even though the stress changes the stem will most likely stay the same.
Certain endings, too (like "ично" in "логично") will end in an O when it's used as an adverb, though be careful since it could be логична if it is being used as a short form adjective for a feminine word.
I hope that helps!
"No, It's not here" is not accepted