You are absolutely right. :) While placing an order, such idiomatic form can be used without any verb.
Note that it works because in a waiter/customer or a salesman/client situation it is understood that you are going to request goods and they are going to provide them for a payment. If no one has to give you anything, this will sound as out of place as "book, please" said to a random person.
Probably not. We drop the whole thing in English from time to time. "Bread and pepper-oil, please" in an Italian restaurant, for instance.
I was discussing pronouns in Spanish with a friend who is a college professor who's taught Spanish for almost 50 years, and he said, "Grammar rules are generalizations written down by grumpy old, literate teachers who are upset that people aren't saying and writing things the "correct" way, that is, the way it used to be. Language is always changing, first as spoken, then, slowly, as written."
I think it would be understood, but "Bread and a cup of milk for me please" is how I would normally order those things as a member of a group in a restaurant. (I would not say "for me" if dining alone.) I do not think it sounds so natural to start the sentence with "For me".
"For me" indicates that this is for me to consume, not for another member of my party and not to be shared by the group. If I wanted to drink milk and to have bread for everybody to share, I might say "A cup of milk for me and some bread please." However the официант might then feel the need to clarify and there would be a conversation about who gets the bread.
As a native speaker of English, I think "For me bread and a cup of milk" would be a perfectly normal and natural way to order when in a group, and this is what I put (not correct according to the "corrections"). Whereas "cup of milk", much as it may be a correct literal translation, does definitely not sound natural!
"Give me...." when ordering in a restaurant, for example, is most definitely not acceptable from a sociolinguistic point of view, although it may be correct as a literal translation. Ok, so we're learning Russian, not English, but I do think that it would improve Duolingo's image if they managed to provide translations that are not only grammatically correct (some of their "answers" are not) but also appropriate in normal usage.
It is a form of я, so you can interpret it as "me", in some sense. Could you provide the specific sentence?
I can some up with a sentence with мне that is not impossible to translate using "my" and stay about right. However, I cannot think of any such sentence in the course
I think that the translation offered is not the best. Мне is probably best translated in general as "to me", so a literal translation would be "bread and a cup of milk to me...". In English, we would use "for me" rather than "to me" in most cases, so the real best translation is probably "bread and a cup of milk for me, please". However, the default translation drops the "for me". I think this is not a good translation, since it changes the meaning of the sentence from one oriented on MY order of food, to ANYONE'S order of food.