"Этот человек у двери."
Translation:This person is by the door.
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What you mean is usually said as "в дверях" (it sounds by the way as if there are two doors keeping the opening closed. Maybe it could have come from the upper class and something like a palace but I don't really know) and means that the door is open and the person you are talking about is in the opening.
"У двери" means that the door remains closed.
It's rather a big difference in case the mentioned person is unwanted.
I think this is purely due to English and the fact that we can imply a word that should be there. Even though what you have written is understood, it is in actual fact grammatically wrong, as there is no verb (in this case to be). 'Is' is the verb that should be in the sentence.
What would it look like if I were to say 'this person is at a door', then?
дверь (dverʹ) [dvʲerʲ] "door": From Proto-Slavic *dvьrь, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰwer-, whence English door, Latin foris, Ancient Greek θύρα (thúra), Albanian derë pl. dyer, Central Kurdish دەرگە (derge), derî, Persian در (dar), Hindi द्वार (dvār) / دوار (dvār), Armenian դուռ (duṙ), Irish doras, Welsh dôr and drws, Lithuanian durys, all meaning door.
I can see that the prepositional "у двери" also reads in english as "at the door" - there's an English-language expression that refers to a dire situation, which goes "the wolf is at the door" - i put that through Google Translate, and it came back, "волк у двери" just for general interest.