"My brother fell from the tree but did not break anything."
Translation:Мой брат упал с дерева, но ничего не сломал.
If you are "on" the tree, you fall "off" it (с дерева). If you are inside the tree, you can fall out of it (из дерева). Unlike in English, in Russian в дереве means being physically inside the trunk or something like that—otherwise you use на дереве. Thus, when you move from that position, it is с дерева.