You're wrong. In fact, the nearest english translation of "u" would be "at". "u mnie jest" can be thought of as "is at my place". "adam jest u lekarza" would be "adam is at his doctor's".
I am quite confused by this russian construction, as есть now suddenly means "is" (previously it meant "eats"), even though that particular part of speech, namely the verb "to be", didn't appear in the previous sentences.
To get more technical and answer your question: 'У' is a preposition and the subject following it is ALWAYS in the genitive case. When 'У' and the subject is paired with 'есть' you are typically dealing with a sentence that means "to have". Warning: есть can sometimes be omitted AND when negated becomes "Нет" plus the genitive case od the object you do NOT have.
For example a structure you typically see is "У + genitive subject + есть + nomitive case of the object you have". Or, in the case of, 'Нет' you have "У + genitive subject + 'нет' + genitive case of the object you do NOT have.
Examples: У меня есть сестра (I have a sister) В нашем библиотеке есть кафе (Our library has a cafe/ In our library there is a cafe) У тебя нет сестры (You do not have a sister)
Well... You're not mistaken, "есть" means "to eat", it's an indefinite form of the verb. In phrases like "у меня есть" the word "есть" is a form of the verb "to be", in fact it's "is". These are quite different words, they just look and sound the same. There is even a Russian joke based on the words game: "Счастье есть. Оно не может не есть" - "There is happiness (happiness exists, literally). It can't help eating". I hope I did't confuse you worse...
You drop the есть, replace it with нет and put the thing being possessed into genitive, so it would "у меня нет мамы." It's also covered in the lesson on Genitives: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Genitive-Case---1
the ть has a soft ending, it becomes soft when it is pronounced with the middle of the tongue raised towards the roof of the mouth. Anyway, you need more practice) Go to https://audioboom.com/posts/1646416-how-to-pronounce-hard-and-soft-t-in-russian and click the play button. I hope that helps you. Happy studying :)
Actually it works in West Slavic languages which retained the actual "to have" = "име́ть"
Czech: Mám jíst.
Polish: Mam jeść.
And even (correct me if I am wrong) Ukrainian: Я маю ї́сти.
Question to native speakers: What about "Мне есть что есть." ? Is it "I have something to eat."?
If you want to claim exactness, then you really must start syntactic analysis. And you must ask what is theverb in a sentence like "Я голодный.". And you will find out there is none. Я is just an subject noun and голодный. That is because the verb is implicit. Not that it is hidden in Я. You can also say Я есмь голодный. Then the verb is there. It is exactly the same, but archaic.
My point was to answer a simple question, and I have done that. If we get overly technical, it complicates things and makes it difficult to understand. Whatever "Я" means to you in your language is a different subject. For the sake of English translations, there are a few ways to read "Я", which depend on context, and they are all correct.
Well, everybody has hes learning way how to view things, I will not dismiss yours, but my language is closer to Russian than to English and for me Я is "I" and nothing else. "me" is меня or мне. It is true that Russians don't explicitly use the "быть"="to be". But for me that roully does not mean that Я would mean "I am" in any way.
Frankly, it does not boil down to a matter of opinion. What I am explaining is factually accurate. These languages cannot be translated literally, so we must always choose translations which make the most sense. You could try and argue that "Я ем" literally means "I eating" or something else, but that doesn't make sense in English; it is not grammatically correct. So, the correct translation is "I am eating". Literally, "Я не хочу" translates to "I not want", but that translation doesn't work in English, so the correct translation is "I don't want". If you want to argue that "Я", can only mean "I" in Russian, suit yourself. But, when translating it to English, it has multiple translations, which are all equally correct.
No. English is my native language, I meant "I have Mom." "Mom" when capitalized is a proper noun, referring to one's mother, such as in the sentence "Yes, Mom." Such, you wouldn't say "I have a David." you would say, rather "I have David."
Sure "I have Mom." and "I have a mom." are two completely different sentences, but both are proper nonetheless.
While "mom" can be a proper noun, it wouldn't be written as such in this context. The meaning of this sentence is "I have a mother/mom", so "mom" wouldn't be capitalized and "I have Mom" wouldn't be the correct translation. If the sentence were something like "I have Mom with me right now" or "Dad and Mom are at the park.", capitalizing "Mom" would be correct.