Forgive me for bringing up an elementary subject relatively far into the course, but at this point I feel the need to make clear: how could you distinguish, in Russian, between the questions "Do you have a long spoon" and "Do you have the long spoon", given that words like "a" and "the" have no cognate in Russian? Is it just something for which you need either context or extra words (such as "my sister's spoon") to make clear?
If I understand correctly, "есть" can be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence. When would "есть" be included and when would it be omitted? Casual talking, written in books, strangers vs. friends, etc. Are there any guidelines? Was this already covered somewhere on the site and I missed it? If so, I'm sorry.
With word order or (obligatory) with intonation. Normally, if you ask who has the spoon, you or someone else, it is "Длинная ложка у тебя?" If you do not use this phrasing, then the word order will not be neutral in terms of this meaning, and will have to be supported by intonation.
It is a random sentence on adjectives. A wide range of objects might (in theory) be large and small, long and short, light and heavy.
There are, of course, combinations that can mean more than the sum of their parts. For example, больша́я сини́ца is a great tit, and се́рая воро́на is a hooded crow (immensely more common than a black crow, at least in Moscow). Чёрная зарплата is a salary paid while avoiding taxation, "under the table" whereas белая зарплата is a fully legal salary. Guess what серая зарплата is.
Why is it incorrect to say «У тебя длинная ложка»?
I heard that «есть» emphasizes the long spoon itself, so omitting it should emphasize asking for a spoon that is long as opposed to short. Am I correct on this?
I also put it in as a statement but the TTS voice sounds the same whether or not it’s a question so I really couldn’t have known. But am I correct on my logic?
Edit: My mind also somehow skipped over the word «есть» when hearing the sentence.