«Вот» is used when you show something. So, you point to a place on a map and say «Москва вот здесь» (which roughly corresponds to «Moscow is over here»). It roughly means: "Moscow is here, I'm showing it to you".
«Москва здесь» without «вот» hasn’t this meaning of showing, and it's roughly translated "Moscow is here" (without "over").
«Ваня» is not a place, it's a person. «Вот Ваня» is said when you want to introduce Ваня to someone.
«Здесь» is a translation of «here». «Вот» is used to bring attention to something, it's actually a separate word that is translated «here's» just because it's difficult to find a better translation in English (some people have compared it to French voilà; I don't speak French so I don't know how accurate it is).
Yes, I was implying that «Вот Ваня» was stating "a person's physical position" as in "Here is (present) Ваня".
Voilà is a contraction for "vois là (see there). It's as you said used to bringing attention to a subject, person, object, whatever. So, if this is the Russian equivalent to that, I understand now.
I think another use of the word Вот could also be compared to the English word "Well", which is often a useless word that conveys pause (or a moment of thinking). "Well, I don't know..." . Of course, this has nothing to do with the exercise, it's just to let others be aware of its different uses.
What I get from this is that Вот plays many different roles, depending on the context. Here/so/well/over.
Apostrophe corresponds to the Russian soft sign (ь). In Russian, most consonants have 2 versions: hard and soft. Soft sign shows that the preceding consonant is soft (palatised). Compare the words рысь / rys' 'lynx' — мыс / mys, the former has a soft 's' and the latter has a hard 's'.
I think you can switch it to always use Cyrillic:
I think Cyrillic should be the default option... :/