Wait- Isn’t it in this way?
Я даю Ты даёшь Он/она/оно даёт Мы даём Вы даёте Они дают
Informal imperative sounds almost like its italian counterpart: «Дай мне» - "Dai a me"
I got this website from someone else, it is in German though: http://dict.leo.org/russisch-deutsch/%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%B9%D1%82%D0%B5?side=left
When you for example, enter читаю in the searchbar it will give you the infinitive читать, which is neat imo. To find the conjugations click on the table sign left of the verb.
Easy. English essentially requires "give" to have a destination, Russian дать in requests is fine with the destination "to me" implied. Since we have to translate our sentences into English, we sometimes include мне even though in reality you may not need it.
It is especially rare in requests where the giving party might be expected to cooperate or willing to provide the object you ask for.
Ты is informal, like when you'd speak to a friend. Вы is formal and therefore reserved for talking to strangers, your boss, older relatives, etc. The same format pops up across most of the romance and germanic languages, so it's a very useful distinction to make if you continue to study languages
We do not, as a rule, use «вы» to talk to our older relatives anymore (despite what 19th century Russian literature may lead you to believe). Relatives you are less familiar with, like, your aunt you rarely ever met or your grandmother's brother, can qualify as "strangers" but your parents and grandparents do not.
Я с вами согласен, неправильно Duolingo произносить слово "дайте", когда слушаю только одно слово, а не всё предложение. :( Я знаю прекрасно русский язык, a учу английский ... I agree with you, it's wrong Duolingo to say the word "дайте", when I listen to only one word, not the whole sentence. :( I know Russian perfectly, and I learn English ...
This is not a dumb question at all. ваша is plural, meaning you're referring to a plate that belongs to more than one person (though probably in this case the person is asking for each of her guests' plate, and not the one in common); твой means the object belongs to one person.
That depends on how straightforward you get. The default way to make it informal is Дай мне твою тарелку or Дай мне свою тарелку—directly parallel to the sentence in the title.
- note that свой "oneself's" is a bit more natural when the possessor is the same as the subject. Still, you often see usual possessives in more formal signs and announcements ("Упакуйте ваши покупки здесь"~"Wrap up your purchases here")
Мне is kind of obvious here (your mileage may vary, depending on context). Russian does no strictly require it here, unlike English. So it might even be Дайте свою(вашу) тарелку / Дай свою(твою) тарелку.
If the person obviously would give you the plate upon your request (e.g., you are washing plates and the person is holding them for you) you can use the imperfective verb to tell them to hand it over right now: «Давай тарелку». (in the absence of such motivation it is rude)