Am I right in thinking that праздник means holiday in the sense of "day collectively celebrated due to some special occasion", whereas отпуск means holiday in the sense of "days off work"?
Right! «О́тпуск» is leave from work, «пра́здник» is a festive event.
Пра́здник is not neccessarily a day off (выходно́й), although some of them are.
Good evening! I am a little confused. I am pretty sure that it means: "Congratulations to you". Please, add this option in the right answers.
The suggested translation is accurate, it literally means “[I congratulate] you on the holiday”. Simple “Congratulations” would be something like «поздравляю».
Why is "From holiday you !" incorrect?
The sentence doesn't use any word for "happy", yet the translation has "happy" in it. Why?
"From holiday you" is absolutely meaningless in English. This phrase just can't be translated literally. The suggested translation is an equivalent English phrase rather than a literal translation.
"From holiday" is wrong even as a literal translation, because from holiday = с/из/от праздника, with holiday = с праздником.
There is no "happy" in the russian sentence ! Explain that please please please.
When we use "с праздником" in Russian, we don't usually mean 'with holiday'.
In some contexts we can use it. E.g. С праздником пришло хорошее настроение — here, «с праздником» can be translated 'with holiday' because it mean that the holiday came, and good mood accompanied it.
However, in «С праздником вас!», nothing accompanies the holiday, nothing is done 'with the holiday'. It's just a short phrase to congratulate people on the holiday. So, we translate it with an English short phrase to congratulate people on the holiday. We can't use the literal translation because it would make no sense.
С праздником вас! Желаю вам счастливых выходных!
These are two sentences with different meanings that can be pronounced one after another.
Happy holiday to you! I wish you happy holidays!
"Wish you happy holidays" was rejected because "I" wasn't there - whereas this is a perfectly acceptable phrase in English. DL please focus on the Russian and not the English (it's a course in Russian for English speakers). Flagging it.
Why not 'со праздником'? Elsewhere it said that с -> со when followed by a cluster of 2+ consonants.
"Congratulations to you with the feast" should be accepted. This is what or priest uses for English speakers.
Holiday greetings to you (as one might see in a secular Christmas card) was not accepted, why?
You're much more likely to hear "happy holidays" than "happy holiday", especially among Americans (for whom this course is primarily supposed to be).