There are tips and notes for every lesson, but they are only visible in the web app. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Possessive-Modifiers-1
Tips and notes
POSSESSIVE ENEMY MINE
There isn't much to say about words like "my" or "your" in Russian.
his/her/their do not change: его́, её, их(and they don't get an initial Н after prepositions!)
my/your/our roughly follow an adjectival pattern, i.e. they copy the gender and the case of the noun they describe. Just like этот:
Unlike English, no distinction is made between my and mine, her and hers etc.
Pronunciation: in «его», as well as in adjective endings and "сегодня" the letter Г is pronounced В. It is a historical spelling.
Nouns in Russian belong to one of three genders: feminine, masculine or neuter. If a noun means a person of a certain gender, use that one. For all other nouns look at the end of the word:
(TABLE) ENDING IN NOM; GENDER; EXAMPLES
-а/-я ; feminine ; ма́ма, земля́, Росси́я, маши́на
consonant ; masculine ; сок, ма́льчик, чай, интерне́т, апельси́н
-о/-е ; neuter ; окно́, яйцо́, мо́ре
-ь ; feminine or masculine - consult a dictionary ; ло́шадь, ночь, мать, любо́вь / день, конь, медве́дь, учи́тель
IF THERE'S A SOFT SIGN, IT ISN'T POSSIBLE TO PREDICT THE GENDER, AT LEAST, NOT ACCURATELY. HOWEVER, ABOUT 65-70% OF THE MOST USED NOUNS THAT END IN -Ь ARE FEMININE. ALSO, YOU CAN LEARN THE COMMON SUFFIXES ENDING IN A SOFT SIGN THAT PRODUCE A WORD OF A PREDICTABLE GENDER. THEY ARE:
-ость/-есть, -знь → feminine
-тель, -арь, -ырь → masculine
ALL NOUNS WITH -ЧЬ, ЩЬ, -ШЬ, -ЖЬ AT THE END ARE FEMININE. THE CONVENTION IS TO SPELL FEMININE NOUNS WITH A SOFT SIGN AND MASCULINE ONES WITHOUT ONE: НОЖ, ЛУЧ, МУЖ, ДУШ. IT DOESN'T AFFECT PRONUNCIATION, ANYWAY.
it depends on what you'd like to highlight, "this is my table" is a simple version and is useful when you show your table to someone, "this table is mine" is perfect e.g. in a situation when somebody puts his/her things on your table and you'd like to express that this is YOUR table and you don't want the others to use it.
A very quick (and basic) rule of thumb is to keep in mind that works ending with -я or -а or -ая these are feminine. If the word ends with a consonant as in стол it is masc. Another example is машина (which one would think is masc. since it's a car) is feminine.
However, if the word, by default is related to male or female, it is overrides the above rule. The word for uncle is дядя and the rule I suggested would make that feminine; however, an uncle is male, therefore the word is masculine in this case.
I hope this helped -
@firebunny19 - This site will explain it well: http://www.study-languages-online.com/russian-possessive-pronouns.html
Ваш and its declensions is second person plural ("your guys'") and singular formal (when talking to someone like a police officer, older stranger, professor, etc.).
Твой and its declensions are used for second person singular informal "you".
@jorgegopp - With this sentence that would probably fine, but it is important to note the difference in the grammar.
"This table" = Этот стол. "This is my table" = Это мой стол.
In other sentences with more information the distinction might become more important, but in this sentence either way gets the point across really. "This is my table" just doesn't align with the Russian grammar as well (and I think would miss the point of this exercises - teaching demonstrative pronouns).
There are a lot of ways to say "yours"--? And no explanation as to how to use them, or when. Very complicated!
No, if you are using это/этот/эта/эти (это to mean "this" if talking about a neuter noun, and not just "it is" when talking about any noun), then you have to put it together with the noun that it modifies. You could say "Это мой стол, не ваш", but it changes the translation ("It is/this is my chair, not yours" instead of "This chair is mine, not yours").
Это is basically just "It is" or "That is" or "This is", where the "It/That/This" is the grammatical subject of the sentence.
Этот (или эта/это/эти attached to a noun) means specifically "this thing". It is demonstrative, and the "thing" remains the subject of the sentence.
Это моя новая машина, которую я купил вчера. This is my new car that I bought yesterday.
Я купил ЭТУ новую машину вчера. I bought this new car yesterday.
Or, maybe more related to this sentence specifically:
Этот стол ваш? Is this table yours?
Это ваш стол? Is this your table?
So you can see that in Russian and English when you're using the demonstrative (this thing), the "this/these" is attached directly to the "thing", and the emphasis is on pointing out specifically which thing you're talking about.
Maybe still not the cleanest explanation : I apologize if not.
If what you wrote was rejected it was probably because the Duo computer doesn't like your use of contractions. You need context to know if your contraction means table is or that the table somehow owns a mine. A human will automatically take it that the contraction is applied to a verb because it is hard to imagine table owning anything much less a mine. But nothing is obvious to a computer.
It is a matter of good style in English not to contract verbs in manner that results in the possible appearance of possession in a sentence that is actually all about something being possessed. In this sentence it is highly improbable that the table owned anything. But, in English, tables do own their legs and sometimes that things that are on them.
In terms of meaning, yes, but it is an inexact translation. Because we are using "etot" (sorry, no cryllic at the moment), we know that we are saying "THIS table." "Etot" is a possessive, whereas "eto" can be a possessive for neuter objects (mostly ending in "o" or "e") or a verb meaning "this is". "This is my table" would be "eto mai (MON`) stol"