"Since" has to be used with a perfect tense, not the simple past or present. "Since" at the beginning of a phrase denotes a period of time from one point in the past to the present or from one point in the past to another later point in the past. I have felt a certain way since ... means I have felt that way from (a specific time in the past) until now. This is present perfect. In a past situation, you might say, " When he saw her that day, it was clear to him that he had loved her since their first meeting ten years before." (two specific times in the past--since refers to the whole period between them and past perfect is required). The English verb system does not work like the systems of other Indo-European langauges, but it has its logic and is really not that difficult to comprehend. If I had many pages, I could explain how it works.
A good question. As it stands "I liked that beer since yesterday" is not correct English. After thinking about this a great deal... What's more important, the tense? or the meaning?
I think "I have been liking that beer since yesterday." is likely the most accurate meaning. However, "I like that beer from yesterday" is likely the closest meaning with the correct tense.
Although, "I have liked that beer since yesterday" is also a strong possibility too...
I think you're right. Another user pointed out that present tense in Portuguese doesn't always translate to simple present tense in English. The sentence, "Ele não fala desde ontem," accepted the translation "He has not spoken since yesterday," which is the perfect present tense.
If we translated "Eu gosto daquela cerveja desde ontem," to the perfect present tense, we would get, "I have liked that beer since yesterday."
English generally avoids comtinuous (progressive) tenses with verbs denoting sensations, thought, or feeling. When such verbs are used in those tenses they almost always have a special meaning or a sense of temporariness. For example, "I see her" is very different from "I am seeing her." So "I have been liking" sounds weird. "I have been enjoying that beer since yesterday" is possible, but it would mean I have continued to drink it with pleasure all through the day and night until today.
Assuming this is a normal/reasonable sentence in Portuguese, this is one of those cases where you would probably express the thought quite differently in English.
"I've liked that beer since yesterday" or "I like that beer as of yesterday" would both work (I don't think the others suggested here do so much), but you'd be far more likely to say something quite different, such as "ever since yesterday, I've been enjoying that beer," or "I changed my mind about that beer yesterday," or "I really came around to liking that beer yesterday," or something like that. I think there's no particularly idiomatic expression for it, so people would probably say it quite differently depending on context, and a lot would depend on (a) whether you'd been drinking the beer since yesterday and enjoying it, or if you just had the beer yesterday and as of then you now officially like it and (b) whether you disliked the beer before yesterday, or yesterday was simply the first time you had it.