"There is soap on the table."
Translation:На столе мыло.
The new information is given at the end. We already know there's a table in the room, but what's new is the soap.
I think that Мыло на столе means "The soap is on the table [and not somewhere else]", which would answer the question "Where is the soap?", while the exercise sentence answers the question, "What is on the table?" I think, that is.
«Столе» is in the prepositional case, because the the soap is AT(prepositional) the location, not (going) TO(accusative), or FROM(genitive) the location.
«Мыло» is in the nominative case.
Some case rules regarding location can be found in the notes of this lesson: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Where-is-it%3F
My phone does not let me type in Russian. So... I need to figure out how to write in the Arabic alphabet.
"там" = There. Though it seems to me that "там" is only used at the end of sentences. For example, "the ball is there" = "Мяч там".
I am a Greenlandic kid who only speaks English and Greenlandic fluently. I may be incorrect about this...but in this duolingo course, I have yet to see "там" in the beginning of a sentence.
You may be right, though I've heard it in a song where it uses там at the beginning of a sentence. It's called "Smugliakna" (Смуглянка).
Can anyone explain the difference between в and на? Why is "в столе мыло" incorrect?
"в" is usually used when describing something as being in something else or in a specified area, whereas "на" is more often used to describe something being on something else or in a more general area.
Is мыло a bar of soap, or maybe several bars of soap, or liquid soap, i.e. the general name, countable or uncountable, or would we need the plural for "bars of soap"?
"Мыло" is uncountable and it refers to any type of soap. If you want to say "liquid soap" it's "жидкое мыло". There's no specific word for "a bar of soap", we just say "кусок мыла".
I looked up кусок: piece chunk lump bit bite bar cake fragment length mouthful scrap segment