Хотеть is to want.
- Я хочу чай/чая/чаю - I want tea (all mentioned forms of "чай" are possible here, чая/чаю is more like "some" tea)
Хочется - is for impersonal phrases, so there's no subject
- Мне хочется чая/чаю - "I have a need/desire of tea"
In general form it looks like:
- "(dative) + хочется + genitive" - One wants/would like something - Ему хочется вина - He wants wine
- "(dative) + хочется + infinitive" - One wants/would like to do something - Ей хочется поехать домой - She wants to go home
- "(dative) + хочется + чтобы..." - One wants/would like someone to do something - Мне хочется, чтобы она купила щенка - I want her to buy a puppy.
Dative is optional.
- Хочется тепла, а на улице снег. - I want/One wants warmth (warm weather), but there is snow in the street.
I don't think this is quite correct. Google (not the most reliable, I know) translates Мне хочется собака as "I want a dog", and Мне хочется собаки as "I want dogs". Чая is in the genitive here to express "some tea" rather than "the tea"; the implied "some" is in the nominative, similar to how you'd say "Мне хочется много чая". In general I think the construction would be
"(dative) + хочется + nominative"
Собаки is the nominative plural.
I'm Russian. RomanRussian is Russian too :) You are wrong. Only "есть/быть" (when it is explicitly present in the sentence or only implied) requires the nominative. The verb "хотеть" requires the genitive (хочу чая/чаю=I want tea/some tea) or the accusative, not the nominative (!) (хочу чай=I want tea/the tea). The verb "хотеться/хочется" requires the genitive. These verbs never ever require the nominative.
The sentences Мне хочется собака and Мне хочется собаки (pl.) are not possible and does not make sense in Russian.
"I feel like some chocolate" is ok but not as good a translation. In English, these two sentences are usually used in different situations. Generally:
"Would you like something to drink?" "Yes, I would like some tea, please." (You could also say "I feel like some tea" but it is less common and not as polite. Usually if someone offers you something or you are ordering at a café, you say: "I would like X, please.")
But if you sit around and get thirsty and you start to desire some nice, hot tea, you say: "I feel like some tea. I think I will go to the kitchen and prepare some." (In this situation, you could also say "I would like some tea now".)
Depending on the context and the speaker they might be used interchangeably but to me that would be the general difference. I hope it makes sense!
I put "I would like tea" and it was marked correctly and I have to say that I had not noticed the ending until I checked the notes and read gdelugre's question in fact I thought I had read чай! The answer here says some tea so am I right in thinking that the ending is in the genitive to indicate "some"? That said I remember something in the tips and notes about чай and a throwback to an earlier time I am ashamed to say I cannot remember properly and unfortunately there is no way to go back and look without losing this page.
«Мне хочется чаю|чая.» = “I feel like having (some) tea.”: partitive
«Мне хочется чай.» = “I feel like having a|the tea.”: nominative
The partitive case (разделительный падеж) is used to indicate a quantity of something, as opposed to all of it or a specific set of it. Most masculine mass nouns in Russian have a partitive form (e.g. ‘чаю’) distinct from the genitive (e.g. ‘чая’), but its use is optional and declining. The partitive of these nouns always ends in ‘у’ or ‘ю’. In Russian feminine and neuter mass nouns, the partitive is always identical to the genitive.
“a lot of cheese” = ‘мно́го сы́ру’ (par.) | ‘мно́го сы́ра’ (gen.)
“a kilogram of sugar” = ‘килогра́мм са́хару’ (par.) | ‘килогра́мм са́хара’ (gen.)
“so much vinegar” = ‘сто́лько у́ксусу’ (par.) | ‘сто́лько у́ксуса’ (gen.)
“no chocolate” = ‘нет шокола́ду’ (par.) | ‘нет шокола́да’ (gen.)
“not much soup” = ‘ма́ло су́пу’ (par.) | ‘ма́ло су́па’ (gen.)
A note on хоте́ться (Imperfective) & захоте́ться (Perfective):
The conjugations of these two verbs are extremely limited. The verbs are only used in 3rd person singular - that makes sense, because, as an impersonal verb, the literal subject in all circumstances is something like the nebulous "it" or "that" or "one", as in "one wants for me some tea" or less literally "it would be nice for me (to have) some tea" or completely idiomatically, "I would like some tea". "I" has no real relationship to the actual "subject" of the sentence, except idiomatically.
If you want to check on pronunciation, copy/paste a word into forvo.com. (If the results say there is more than one pronunciation, then click on the word to take you to the multiple pronunciations - if you click on the sideways triangle to the left of the initial results word, you will only hear one pronunciation.)
And it sounds OK to me: https://forvo.com/word/%D1%87%D0%B0%D1%8F/#ru