Am I correct then in guessing that "пареня" would be "girlfriend"?
You’ve correctly guessed one of the patterns feminine forms are formed, congratulations!
...However, unfortunately, this pattern is not used for this word. «Парень» literally means 'boy, youth', and you can't make 'boy' feminine, you need to use a completely different word. Which is «де́вушка», as you've correctly said.
A male teacher is «учи́тель», a female teacher is «учи́тельница».
«Учи́теля» is the genitive form of «учи́тель», it's used after the preposition «у» (and in many other situations). The genitive form of «учи́тельница» is «учи́тельницы».
«Учителя́» (note the stress) is the plural nominative form of «учи́тель». The plural form of «учи́тельница» is «учи́тельницы» (same as the singular genitive form).
Iʼve never heard of the word «подруг»! Maybe youʼve meant «друг»?
«Подруга» means 'female friend', «друг» means either 'male friend' or just 'friend'. These words donʼt usually imply romantic love. You could use them to translate "boyfriend" or "girlfriend", but this would probably be an euphemism.
Some older Russian textbooks indeed did suggest translating "girlfriend" as подруга and "boyfriend" as друг. I honestly don't know whether the authors didn't know the exact meaning of boyfriend/girlfriend, deliberately choose to ignore them because they disapproved of extramartial relationships, or taught some older variant of English where "boyfriend" meant "male friend".
It reminds me of in the book Clockwork Orange how the characters had a made up language that incorporated Russian and they use the word droogie to mean friend. David Bowie used the word droogie in his song Suffragette City, which he took from Clockwork Orange. So this tells me that at least at one time in English speaking countries we thought the word for friend was друг or something like it.
My grandparents use these terms, so yes they are outdated. Друг is a slag word for Подруг, and as language evolves Подруг became outdated. It does mean male friend and Подруга means lady friend, or if you are emphasizing it is a young girl "подружка". This confused me growing up because I didn't realize my family thought my guy friends were my boyfriends... Then when I was older I kept emphasizing we were just friends and I didn't know how else to call my friends... Using the possessive additive to guy or gal makes it a lot easier.. nobody accidentally says "MY guy" haha
Друг is a slag word for Подруг, and as language evolves Подруг became outdated
If that were the case, you’d expect to see that word in old texts and old dictionaries, which is not the case. It’s more likely the reverse: подруг might have been a local slang or regional word that never became popular enough to replace the widespread word друг.
I'm not sure it helps, but transription is /ˈparʲɪnʲ/ or [па́рʼьнʼ].
On the russian language lessons in company I have worked before, we have ommited the word парень and we have used the word любовник. Can this be used equivalently or любовник is more like lover? Because it has more meanings (https://translate.google.com/?#ru/en/%D0%BB%D1%8E%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA). Maybe some native speaker can explain this...
In modern Russian, «любо́вник» almost always refers to a person with whom someone has an extramarital affair.
There are a few other meanings, but they are pretty rare:
- When used with an adjective, «любовник» can refer to qualities of a person in bed: хоро́ший любо́вник ‘good lover’ or пы́лкий любо́вник ‘ardent lover’ means someone is good in bed (not neccessarily in extramarital affairs),
- In theatre, геро́й-любо́вник ‘jeune premier’ is a kind of role.
Other usage is pretty obsolete. We don’t use the word «любо́вник» to refer to anyone in love. We definitely don‘t use it to refer to a boyfriend (unless there is another boyfriend or a spouse who doesn’t know about this second boyfriend :)).
The audio for this word is not very good. You can hear more pronunciations on Forvo: https://forvo.com/word/%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%8C/#ru
Also, the soft rolled R /rʲ/ is one of the most complex sounds in Russian, so don’t worry if you don‘t get it right immediately. Nobody does :)
Парень and девушка are words that respectively mean (fellow, guy, lad) and (miss, girl, lass) and they also double as boyfriend and girlfriend.
Are there titles that exclusively indicate a premarital casual or trial relationship without implying anything (generally considered) negative?