Latin for Duolingo: Present Tense Verbs, Lesson 4
This week we’ll continue with our study of present tense verbs. Verbs of the 4th conjugation are marked by a 2nd principal part, the infinitive, which ends in
–ire. Like the 3rd conjugation, they follow the “IOU rule” in forming the present tense. But all verbs in this conjugation retain the I-stem, which shows up in the present tense in the 1st person singular and 3rd person plural. This may make it difficult to distinguish 3rd conjugation I-stems from 4th conjugation verbs; the difference is in the infinitive. 4th conjugation verbs usually follow a regular pattern for their 4 principal parts: -io, ire, ivi, itus. Where this is not the case, the principal parts will be written out. Here’s how you conjugate a 4th conjugation verb in the present tense:
audio = I hear
audis = you hear
audit = he, she, it hears
audimus = we hear
auditis = you all hear
audiunt = they hear
I introduced 2 verbs of this type already, in the food lesson:
esurio, 4 = to be hungry, to hunger
sitio, 4 = to be thirsty
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus, 4 = open
audio, 4 = hear
convenio, convenire, conveni, conventus, 4 = assemble, come together
dormio, 4 = sleep
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum, 4 = find, come upon
munio, 4 = fortify, construct, strengthen
pervenio, pervenire, perveni, perventus, 4 = arrive, reach
scio, 4 = know
venio, venire, veni, ventum, 4 = come
Non venis. = You do not come.
Non scio. = I do not know.
Discipuli in ludo conveniunt. = The students assemble in the school.
Fratrem meum audio. = I hear my brother.
Pueri sitiunt. = The boys are thirsty.
Scimus, sed tu non scis. = We know, but you do not know.
Lucia librum aperit. = Lucia opens the book.
Auditisne canem? = Do you hear a dog?
Nos esurimus, sed tu dormis. = We are hungry, but you are sleeping.
Televisionem non vident, sed audiunt. = They do not see the television, but they hear it.
Milites oppidum contra barbaros muniunt. = The soldiers fortify the town against the barbarians.
Milites vias muniunt. = The soldiers construct roads. (The Roman soldiers were legendary for their discipline and endurance. When they weren’t actively engaged in offensive or defensive work, their commanders had them devote their muscle to expanding the network of roads that enabled quick travel throughout the Empire).
Ad urbem pervenimus. = We arrive at the city.
Marcus in villā dormit. = Marcus sleeps in the house.
Locum sciunt. = They know the place.
Pater viam invenit. = Dad finds the road.
Nautae arcam aperiunt et gemmas inveniunt. = The sailors open the chest and find jewels.
I hope you have enjoyed this set of lessons on verbs. I am considering a few different topics for our next lesson(s), and if you have a strong preference for one of them, please let me know below. Here are the concepts we’ll need to explore: personal pronouns, prepositions, colors (which are really just more adjectives), 4th declension nouns, 5th declension nouns, questions, clothing, numbers, time and dates. It’s hard to give an exact equivalent, but if you’ve been following along with all the lessons so far, I think we are getting close to what would be the 2nd checkpoint of a typical Duolingo tree. So, nowhere near finished, but I think it’s quite a respectable beginning, and I certainly appreciate all the encouragement you’ve given me.
Valete et habete bonam fortunam!