Домой is an exception since it's like...homewards. It's not technically a form of дом like you would expect.
For other places, you would have to use the preposition в and the accusative case (not the prepositional that you might have seen already with в). I'm going to the park: Я иду в парк. (Accusative) I'm taking a walk in the park: Я гуляю в парке. (Prepositional)
In another exercise, someone who really seemed to know the topic said that домой acts as an adverb, and that the word "homeward" is a close approximation of what it means. However, I tried entering "I am going homeward" and it was not accepted, so a literal translation doesn't seem to be in order.
Quite right, this website, which very usefully declines and identifies words - http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/morphque.cgi?flags=endnnnnp - translates it as 'homeward'. Thank you
It's actually a remnant of a much older form of Russian (I think Old Slavonic?). The dative case was used to talk about towards, just like Я иду к вокзалу (I'm going to the station) and while the dative singular in modern Russian is different now (дому) due to more universal grammar changes, the word домой is still used.
It depends on the context. For example, in this dialogue it sounds OK:
— Алло́. Что де́лаешь? 'Hello. What are you doing?' — Иду́ домо́й. 'Going home.'
(In this dialogue, the context gives us understanding of what pronoun is used. People are talking on the phone, and it's assumed that they are asking about each other's actions. So we can drop it.)
It this sentence it doesn't sound OK:
Сего́дняшние зада́чи сде́ланы. Я иду́ домо́й, е́сли что — звони́те. 'Today's tasks are done. I'm going home, if you need anything, call me.'
(In this sentence, previous context was about the 'tasks', and now we shift to another context: to speaking about 'me'. Here, context doesn't help us understand the sentence is about me, so we don't drop the pronoun.)
In general, it's safer not to drop pronouns. ^^" Not dropping pronouns usually sounds OK always, dropped pronouns sound OK only sometimes.
No, it's in fact very different from Spanish. Unfortunately, I can't give you the rules (I don't know them myself!), but when comparing Spanish sentences with their Russian translations, pronouns are usually dropped at very different places.
There are 2 different things involved: perfective vs. imperfective verbs and frequentative vs normal verb. :D
Perfective vs. imperfective
Идти means 'to go, to be going', and it's an imperfective verb. It presents an action as having the beginning and end: i.e. something that begins at specific time and ends at specific time. Only imperfective verbs can have present tense forms (я иду — I'm going):
- Я иду́ в магази́н. 'I'm going to a/the shop.'
«Идти́» has a suppletive plural (it means it has a completely different plural form):
- Я шёл в магази́н. 'I was going to the shop.
Пойти is a perfective verb which refers to the beginning of going. Perfective verbs have only one point in time: i.e. the action denoted by «пойти» happens with you start going. They can't have present tense form:
- Я пойду́ в магази́н. 'I'll go to the shop.'
Since «пойти» = по + идти, it has пошёл, пошла́, пошло́, пошли́ in the past tense:
- Ива́н пошёл в магази́н. 'Ivan went to the shop.'
- Ма́ша и И́ра пошли́ в ресторан. 'Masha and Ira went to the restaurant.'
- И́ра пошла́ в магази́н у́тром. 'Ira went to the shop in the morning.'
One-time action vs. frequentative
Many imperfective verbs can refer to action that's already in progress and to a repeated action. «Я мо́ю посу́ду» 'I'm doing the dishes' can mean you're doing the dishes now, or that you're doing the dishes regularly.
However, works of motion have 2 separate forms for this: идти́ means one-time action of going, and ходи́ть means a repeated action of going:
- Я иду́ в теа́тр с сестро́й. Мы наконе́ц-то купи́ли биле́ты. I'm going to the theater with my sister. We've finally bought tickets. (I'm going now.)
- Я хожу́ в теа́тр с сестро́й. У нас похо́жие интере́сы. I'm going to the theater with my sister. Our interests are similar. (Repeating action, I'm going to the theater with her more than one time.)
Hope that helps!
There's no form «идемь». «Идём» is possible (or идем, if you don't put dots over ё which is acceptable), but it's used with «мы». Verbs in Russian change their forms depending on which pronoun they are used with. So, я иду 'I go/walk', but мы идём 'we go/walk'.
Confused " I go home " and " i'm going home " in english are completely different, i know it's the same in russian, but, still doesn't make sense to me. Can someone kindly put these sentences into russian? Before i go home i go to the gym i go home at 5:00 ( Statement ) i go to church ( Statement ) i'm going to church at 5:00