Does the course ever cover what the difference between тарелка and тарелке is?
I don't recall learning it within the course, but they're both coming up in my practices. Which section of the course was it in?
I think I might have found it, perhaps it's within the "Where is it?" section. Is тарелке the prepositional form of тарелка?
A lot of times, lessons give you previews of coming attractions: vocab, grammar, etc. Everything (or almost everything) is eventually explained. Kind of nice this way because when you learn something for the "first" time, it's already familiar. I think in these cases, just sort of robotically repeat whatever you see; later you'll understand why something is the way it is and you'll already be primed to do it that way.
Well, yes but there's no chart indicating different endings of a word or anything. Is there somewhere that has a chart showing the different endings?
For example, in the example shown in those tips and notes "в доме" apparently means "at home", but "дома" means the same thing? Is дома also prepositional? What's the difference?
If a words that end in a such as "улица", or "школа" are used to say "I'm in the street", or "I'm in school", does the "а" always transform into a "е" or is there more rules than that?
On another note... Это and Эта are pronounced almost identically? How do you know the difference between them?
That's because you really don't need a chart. There are only two patterns. There are also a number of irregular nouns but as they are irregular a chart would be no good. Here is a good source I found: http://masterrussian.com/aa081500a.shtml
дома is not a noun, I believe it's an adverb.
Это and эта are actually pronounced identically. However, the difference between them is always obvious from context, so you shouldn't worry too much about it.
I can't reply to your last post so I'm putting it here.
Это the pronoun and эта the adjective will be used differently, but instead of эта I'll give an example with the neuter form это, since this is identical to the pronoun even in spelling. Это молоко in a vacuum would mean "this is milk," because "this milk" is just a sentence fragment. But if someone asked Какое молоко? and somebody answered Это молоко, it would obviously be "this milk," as opposed to that milk over there, which smells funny.
We get by just fine in English even though these words are perfect homonyms all the time. In Russian they are only homonyms or homophones in neuter gender and plural number. They do not mean exactly the same thing, of course, but they are quite similar.
As for этот and эти, these are just the masculine/plural forms of the adjective. They also don't sound the same.
В доме literally means in the house - в + prepositional.
If you want declension tables, Google it. You will come up with more Russian declension charts than you can shake a stick at.
Дома is an adverb meaning at home - it just so happens Russian has single word to translate that, where English doesn't. Compare домой, homewards, where we can translate it with a single word.
Russian has homonyms and homophones just like any other language, including English; there their they're, anyone? ;) Of course you won't pick up the differences between это and эта to start with. That's why learning a language requires practice. You can't expect yourself to magically 'get' all this stuff in a week.