"Grass is near the palace."
Translation:Возле дворца трава.
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The existence of both things are both known, otherwise it would be a question of there being a palace near the grass, if I understand from other lessons. Kind of like having a brother or sister, when stating as such it's confirming existence, but by having a relation of where both items are, i.e. near, they both are determined already.
Во́зле is a preposition and, together with a noun it modifies (дворца́), it constitutes an indivisible phrase. You could insert other words modifying the noun (e.g. возле краси́вого дворца́ 'near the beautiful palace'), but not completely unrelated words.
Sorry, yes, it's definitely a preposition! I'll need to fix my message. (Upd: fixed it)
«Возле трава дворца» would mean nothing, since во́зле requires genitive, and трава́ is nominative. It could work if there was a masculine noun тра́в (near the palace's трав), but we don't have such a noun.
I think this would mean «The grass is near the palace», but I’m not sure.
I could be wrong in my attempt to apply this elsewhere, but I found your word order explanation of something similar on another thread to be extremely helpful. It's still awkward for me but having that framework in which to think of it has been very useful.
Or, it doesn't apply here at all and I don't understand it as well as I think I do. That's entirely possible, likely even! Feel free to correct me if I'm mistaken.
Thanks! This is applicable here.
Since the time I wrote that post I've found a description of word order in Rosenthal. Basically, it confirms my intuition about the old/new information (topic-comment relation), but there's another dimension to it: sometimes the word order is fixed.
An example of the fixed word order is the position of adjectives, I've decribed it here yesterday: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11877095 — it has nothing to do with what's new information.
I have such difficulty comprehending the cases without an abundance of clear examples. Somebody explained above that дворца is genitive and дворце , is prepositional. But would somebody be so kind as to give a few examples of sentences which correctly use дворце?
Thanks in advance!
The prepositional case is always used with, well, prepositions. These are the prepositions that can be used: в(о), на, о/об/обо, по, при. На isn't very useful for дворец, and по can't be used at all. These are the rest:
Король живёт во дворце. — The king lives in the palace.
Посейдон живёт в роскошном дворце на дне моря. — Poseidon lives in a luxurious palace at the bottom of the sea.
Сегодня во дворце бал. — There is a ball in the palace today.
Опочивальня — это спальня во дворце. — A bedchamber is a bedroom in a palace.
Расскажи мне о Дворце Наций! — Tell me about the Palace of Nations!
книга о Зимнем дворце — a book about The Winter Palace
При дворце есть шут. — There is a jester at the palace.
Do the location first then add what's near it. NEAR THE PALACE (is ) grass. We know about THE palace. What's near it? (Newer info) grass. The word THE in English means it will be placed first in Russian. Grass is near THE palace. Near THE palace is grass. Both these will be translated Возле дворца - трава. If you say Воэле траве - дворец it would mean near THE grass is a palace. THE Grass would become what we know and A palace is is what we didn't know.