So wait, is the dash ever really necessary, or is it just kind of a text adaptation of something that became a norm in Russian speech? The sentence seems like it could be the same without it, but I could be wrong.
Here it replaces the copula, which is not used in Russian in the present tense.
Yes, but without the dash on Duolingo, we still have to add the copula if the first letter is Capital and there is ending punctuation.
the prepositional case is used with "в" to denote location (in the city) while the accusative case would be used to denote direction (to the city). городе is the prepositional case of город (which is also how the accusative is spelled). You can find a full declension table here.
"My house is in town." is also accepted as correct. The "a" was not required.
I am interested in the hyphen (—). In the very first lesson of this tree, we learn that ‘An em-dash is used instead of "the verb “to be” between the two nouns: «Мокка — кофе» ("A mocha is coffee".)’
As of my understanding, the hyphen is usually omitted when the emphasis is not on the verb ‘to be’, that is, not on the action of ‘is/are/am.’
Thus, ‘Мой дом — в городе‘ would mean ‘My home is in the city’, with an emphasis on the fact that is really is in the city or that it still is in the city, and ‘Мой дом в городе‘, without a hyphen, would mean ‘My home is in the city’, ‘My home is in the city’ or ‘My home is in the city’, with an emphasis on where the location of the home. Right?
So, just to be clear, ‘Мой дом — в городе‘ emphasises ‘is’ while the same sentence without a hyphen emphasises location?
It emphasises in the city. Without the dash, the sentence would not emphasise anything, it would be just a neutral statement. In fact, I think that the course creators shouldn't have put the dash here — after all, it’s not really necessary, but it raises extra questions which learners could do without yet…
Oh, ok. Thank you very much for responding. Большое спасибо!
Also, funny how the long hyphen (—) is used in Russian but not available on the Russian keyboard layout, only the short hyphen (-) is available. This is also the case with the quotation marks: «цитат» is used in Russian but only the simple "цитат" are available. ☺
The main cases when a dash is needed between the subject and the predicate are:
1) Both the subject and the predicate are nouns in the nominative case.
Земля́ — плане́та.
Earth is a planet.
Exception: when there is a negation with не, the dash is not needed.
Луна́ не плане́та.
The Moon is not a planet.
2) There is вот or это between the subject and the predicate.
Земляни́ка — это и вку́сно, и поле́зно.
Strawberries are both tasty and good for your health.
3) The subject, or the predicate, or both are infinitive verbs.
Жизнь прожи́ть — не по́ле перейти́.
Living a life is not as simple as crossing a field. (a proverb). Note that не here does not make the dash unnecessary.
4) The subject, or the predicate, or both are numerals.
Два́жды два — четы́ре.
Two times two is four.
Глубина́ о́зера — три ме́тра.
The depth of the lake is three meters.
Не makes the dash unnecessary if the predicate is a numeral, not a noun:
Два́жды два не пять.
Two times two is not five.
@Gwenci Wow, that was a much better explanation than your first. Very throughout! Thank you very much for responding!
Большое спасибо за ваш ответ!
I suppose a city is an open space but with very defined boundaries, so that's why you should use В
Is that short pause in the speech, between дом and в, necessary? Or is it pronounced like that here to be easier to understand it?
No. The hyphen is not necessary at all, and native speakers NEVER have a pause in their speech like that.
I guess the dash is only there to help new learners understand that Russian omits the copula (to-be verb) in the present tense.
i really dont understand why in sentences,the words change like here город becames городe,can someone please explain?am i doing the lessons in a wrong order?did i miss the explanation somewhere?
How is that suppose to sound when speaking and not writing when it comes about the dash?
Many of my answers are NOT Accepted in Russian, and I KNOW they are Correct with perfect Pronunciation.
Hi, guys. What about speaking the "dash"? How to differentiate sentences with and without this signal?