"Я не знаю её фамилию."
Translation:I do not know her last name.
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yes and so is the pronoun proceeding it. once I learned the case endings and learned to identify them Russian became much easier to read (feminine accusative: U/YU
"Её" is the possessive pronoun here. It happened to have the same form as the genitive of "она" but that's incidental.
The same happens in English actually. In the "I don't know her surname" the "her" is the possessive, whereas in "I don't know her" it's not (it's the objective case - a remnant from the times when English had cases too), even though it looks the same. If we use a different pronoun you can see the difference. Compare "You don't know my surname" and "You don't know me", for example.
No, not only when it's on the preceding syllable; think of it more as "distance to the stressed syllable". Doesn't matter whether it's stressed before or after. The vowels of the type "o" and "a" ("я" falls under that) both are reduced, and the farther they're away from the stressed syllable, the more reduced they get.
I particularly liked this one, which was posted by someone else in another excercise: http://www.russianlessons.net/grammar/nouns_nominative.php
The other cases are linked on the page.
Dnagashi's linked site is great for explanations. For quick reference, I prefer https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_declension. Even quicker and as a handy, light and laminated sheet that can be carried around during commuting: https://de.pons.com/grammatik-wortschatz/pons-grammatik-auf-einen-blick-russisch-978-3-12-561908-1/russisch. You don't need to understand German to use it.
It includes declination tables of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, prepositions - these definitely don't require knowledge of German. It also includes explanations of verbal conjugation - I think you can only use those if you understand German, or already know the Russian rules and are using the cheatsheet for reference. Same goes for the included information on word order in different types of propositions (affirmation, negation, interrogation), the info on numbers and the translation of conjunctions.
Size: 3* double-sided A4 sheets. Cost: 5€ (worth every cent :)
Fun fact: apparently, the original (and now obsolete) meaning was actually "family" (https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/фамилия).
In the meantime, "family" got a suffix and became фами́лия + -ный (https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/фамильный#Russian).
-ный is a suffix that is tagged on to convert a noun/ verb into an adjective. The alternative form - used when the ending is stressed - is -но́й.
Variants occur in certain cases:
When the stem ends in a velar/ ц -> palatisation.
"A stem ending in -л turns into -ль before the suffix; contrariwise, all other stems ending in -ь lose this."
Special rules concerning change of stress [that I'm not ready to deal with yet].
The list of Russian words with the suffix -ный is gigantic. So it's probably quite a good idea to learn the declension table by heart https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/-%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9#Russian.
The stressed form has less words.