I wonder what the difference in pronunciation is. I don't hear the difference between the two :/.
У (In У*) Is pronounced like English ''oo,'' in moon, but shorter with your lips more rounded and protruded. О (In Сока) Is pronounced like English ''oh,'' in open. But only for it's stressed version. О Can also make an ''ah'' sound in English cot, when it is Unstressed
There are tips and notes for each lesson, only visible in the web app. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Genitive-Case---1
Tips and notes
In Russian “I have” is expressed by «У меня (есть)» structure. The owner is in the Genitive case.
"The of-case". It is one of the most universal cases. How do you make the forms? Here is the regular pattern:
A zero ending means that the word ends in a consonant or a soft sign (which is just a way to show the final consonant is "soft"). In the Nominative singular, a Russian word can only have the following endings: а, я, о, е, ё ornothing ("zero ending").
GENITIVE OF NEGATION
If you use «нет» to say that there is "no" something or you do not have it, the object is always in Genitive:
У меня́ есть я́блоко → У меня́ нет я́блока
Здесь есть рюкза́к → Здесь нет рюкзака́.
"of" (possession): яблоко мамы = mom's apple"of" (amount): чашка чая, много чая = a cup of tea, a lot of tea
A huge number of prepositions requires this case. Yes, «у меня есть», «У неё есть» only use «меня» and «неё» because «у» wants Genitive.
For он, она and оно Genitive doubles as a non-changing possessive "his", "her", "their": его, её, их.
initial «н» is used for him/her/them with the majority of prepositions (doesn't affect possessives)
A little side note: some nouns of foreign origin are indeclinable. It means that all their forms are the same. Foreign nouns that end in о/е become like that (кофе, метро, радио, резюме), as well as all nouns that do not fit into Russian declension patterns (see above).
This includes female names that end in anything other than А or Я. A few -ь-ending names are an exception (Любовь and Biblical names like Юдифь).
So, all of the following names are automatically indeclinable: Маргарет, Мэри, Элли, Дженни, Рэйчел, Натали, Энн, Ким, Тесс, Жасмин.
I AM AWAY
Russian also uses the Genitive to state that someone is "away", "not there": Мамы сейчас нет. In English such use would correspond to "There is no mom at the moment", or even "There is no me now". We are not hard on that particular construction in the course, but it is important to know it all the same.
Added bonus: when a verb directly acts on a noun, the noun is called a direct object and is in Accusative. In Russian, only -а/-я feminine nouns have a unique form for it. Others just reuse Genitive or don't change the word at all (Nominative)
Russian uses.... let's call it "consistent" negation. It means that in negative sentences you are required to use "nothing" instead of "anything", "nowhere" instead of "somewhere" and so on. Let's meet the first of these pronouns:
У меня ничего нет. = I don't have anything.Она ничего не ест. = She doesn't eat anything.
You'll also notice that, unlike standard English, Russian has no rule against using double negatives.
I was marked wrong for "We do not have THE juice". Would the Russian be different in some way for this?
@ArcticFoxBlanket - The type of juice is not specified here, it's just "juice". Apple juice is яблочный сок (у нас нет яблочного сока).
So, when I speak Russian to my family, I always said it like "u menya neta soka" like I would add in an "a" after "net" is that wrong?
I haven't heard "neta", but saying "netu" (не́ту) in place of "net" (нет) is pretty widespread. It's not considered standard, though, so it's only used in colloquial speech, but not in formal writing.
Note that "netu" (не́ту) is only used when talking about absence of something. As a general-purpose negative answer, only "net" (нет) is used.
Ah, maybe it is netu but I say it like neta. Because my parents never formally taught me Russian, I realized how colloquial my Russian is. Like using ест over кушать feels odd.
Can someone help me with the classifications of наш, них, нас, etc... I know that they're different per case (e.g. Accusative, Dative, etc...) but I just want to iron out all of the details so I can be confident in future use :)
We don't have juiceS? eg. customer: "Hi, may I have some apple juice please." waiter: "Sorry, we don't sell juiceS here."
«We don't have juices» would be «У нас нет со́ков».
"Hi, may I have some apple juice please." waiter: "Sorry, we don't sell juiceS here."
— Здра́вствуйте, мо́жно мне я́блочного со́ка, пожа́луйста?
— Извини́те, у нас тут не́т со́ков.
"We do not have the juice"... Why was that wrong if the correct answer is "We do not have juice"?? It's the same thing! And so far I've not noticed Russian using articles so I'm not sure when they do and don't apply...