"Are the lakes here?"
The meaning changes a little when you change the word order:
- Озёра здесь? = Are the lakes here?
- Здесь озёра? = Is it the lakes that are here?
- Здесь озёра? = The lakes are here, aren't they?
- Озёра здесь? = These are the lake here, right?
The bold shows the audible stress.
To elaborate on what Olimo said a bit, есть is used when asking about the existence or otherwise of an object, and not when asking about a characteristic of that object (such as location). In the English sentence, the existence of the lakes is not in question. We know there are lakes. We want to know if they're here or somewhere else. Therefore есть is omitted.
What if the question is directed toward whether or not said lake exists in a place? I.e., if this place has a lake or not?
Then you can use есть. But don't get confused, есть is not used as "is" in English, although it is it's litteral translation. You'll generally not have to use it in the present tense, except for possession (у меня есть кот=I have a cat) Or to specify if something does exist, like in the case you were talking about.
вот is like if you're presenting something. здесь is for just explaining the location of something.
"Там" is there, "тут" is here. And if you're now wondering about "тут" and "здесь", "тут" is a bit less formal.
"Здесь/тут" speaks about location. "Вот" is "here" in a pointing sort of way, more like"here is".
To add to that, if you can add the sound effect "Tadaa!" to your "Here is x" sentence, you'll most likely want Вот.
Та and находится are both singular. To be grammatical it would have to be "Те озёра находятся здесь". But те озёра would mean "those lakes", as opposed to some other lakes, so it doesn't really fit here.
What would the following sentence mean? Because it is marked wrong. У меня есть озера? Or У меня едят озера? Or У меня здесь озера? Is the construction with the "у меня..." only for statements, not questions?
У меня есть озёра? Means "do I have lakes?" So it's right out. You can use у меня in questions, but it would be a question about whether you possess something.
It's really bothering me that these sentences aren't very consistent. Sometimes it'll only accept [noun] здесь, and sometimes it will only accept здесь [noun]. If all it changes is the emphasis, shouldn't both be accepted? But every single time it asks to translate a sentence like this, it only accepts one, with no indication of which.