"Я бросаю яблоки в коробку."
Translation:I am throwing apples into the box.
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Pretty much, although the exact word endings for the different cases will depend on the word. It isn't always -у versus -e.
There are also a few exceptions (the "locative case" covered in the "Around You" lesson) where a stressed -у ending is used for saying that something happened "at/in" a place. The example in the notes is Мы в аэропорту́. = We are at the airport (https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Around-you)
In this particular case it is rather easy.
Location is where action takes place. With в and на you use Prepositional (a.k.a. Locative) for the location.
Direction is the place where action goes (though it starts somewhere else). With в and it requires Accusative.
- there are a tricky borderline cases with verbs of "putting" that allow two interpretations (to "move" the object from somewhere to a place X or to "leave" the object at a position X). Return to the topic a few months later :)