We prefer literal translations of whole blocks rather than individual words, if at all ;) E.g., while «на улице» can mean "on(in) the street" sometimes (namely, when you talk about streets), it is also very often used as "outside" and "outdoors" (which makes much more sense in this sentence).
One phrase for "outside" is much easier to remember! In English when we talk about outside we often specify where we are outside too - outside: in the park, in the woods, in/on the street, your house. Just "outside" is good when you don't want to say exactly where outside!
While "снаружи" is used as an adverb for both "on the outside" and "from the outside", "наружу" may be better for simply "outside", although it can also mean "on the outside" or "to the outside". "вовне" is the simplest adverb for outside, while "на улице" and "на дворе are colloquialisms.