Is there any difference in the meaning of these? I think Russian prefers to negate the subordinate sentence, while English more often negates the main sentence. However, I don't think there's much difference in the meaning — is there?
Good point. It's about which verb is negated.
You do or do not think something is true.
You think it is true that he does have or does not have something.
Naturally, in conversation the tone of voice would be more important in expressing the intent than the location of the negative. (in English)
When pronouns starting with е- are used after a preposition, they get н prepended.
The exception is «её» and «его» when they're modifying another noun: у него нет 'he doesn't have', but у его сестры нет 'his sister doesn't have'.
"его" means "his" in the majority of cases. It doesn't change no matter what the case is used.
"него" is a case form of the word "он" (as well as "его" in some cases). But for beginning you can rememebr these things as a rule. And don't worry native speakers also confuse about these two things sometimes.
There is a link, where it's said after what prepositions you use each word: https://otvet.mail.ru/question/38222616
That sounds very unnatural. I'd normally say «В доме есть кровать?» — «Думаю, в нём нет кровати» (actually, «Думаю, там нет кровати» sounds much better).
Use Wikitionary, it's very detailed and helpful. For this particular verb: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B4%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C
But conjugations are part of the course. Unless you mean every page should have conjugations on it. There are links to all manner of methods of displaying conjugation tables spread throughout the comments pages.
Duo is an online course structure. It all done by links. That is how online courses work.
No, this sentence has no accusative. :) Accusative is «крова́ть» (same as nominative), for example, in «Я ви́жу крова́ть» 'I see a bed'.
We express ownership and absence of ownership differently, usign the preposition «у» (usually translated 'at', but here it indicates the possessor) and the sentences about existence and absence:
- У него́ нет крова́ти. 'At his [possession], there-is-no bed.' = He doesn't have a bed.
- У него́ е́сть крова́ть. 'At his [possession], there-is [a] bed.' = He has a bed.
Grammatically, this is similar to any sentence about existence:
- В ко́мнате нет крова́ти. 'In [the] room, there-is-no bed.' = There is no bed in the room.
- В ко́мнате есть крова́ть. 'In [the] room, there-is [a] bed.' = There is a bed in the room.
So, «у» is just a preposition like any other.
To say that something exists, 'there is', you use «есть» + noun in the nominative case. To say that something doesn't exist, 'there is no', you use «нет» + noun in the genitive case. These sentences don't have accusative.
In the past, Russian used a verb similar to the English 'have', «име́ть». When it's used, the object is indeed in the accusative: «он име́ет крова́ть» 'he has a bed.' However, we don't normally use this verb nowadays. It's only used in very formal texts, or when talking about abstract things (я име́ю представле́ние = I have a general idea).
Also, in negative sentences, objects are often not put in accusative. Instead, genitive case is used. So, if you wanted to say the sentence "I don't think he has a bed." using the old-fashioned verb «име́ть», you'd say «Ду́маю, он не име́ет крова́ти», with «крова́ти» in genitive. Using accusative here sounds even less natural.
Hope this helps!
Not sure about the Russian but in English, if the negative form is in front of thinking it is all about him not thinking something.
In this sentence the negative is in front the bed which would make it all about the absence of a bed. (in English)
Zeitschleife says, earlier in this thread, that is specifically true in Russian as well.
One problem is that in ordinary conversation, most English speakers would use either form to mean the same thing. Many, if not most English speakers would therefore say that it does mean the same thing. Of course, it does not.
The table you've found is for forming accusative-case form. It's indeed correct: it stays the same, so the accusative would be 'крова́ть'. Accusative is used for direct objects:
- Я ви́жу крова́ть. 'I see a bed.'
- Покупа́тель покупа́ет крова́ть. 'A buyer buys a bed.'
However, Russian sentences denoting 'having' or 'not having' are formed differently from English. Russian doesn't have the verb 'to have', so instead you need to rephrase the sentence about existence:
- У него́ нет крова́ти. 'He doesn't have a bed.', literally: at his [possession,] there-is-no bed.
This works just like any other sentence with 'there is no':
- В ко́мнате нет крова́ти. In [the] room, there is no bed.
- Во́зле окна́ нет крова́ти. Near [the] window, there is no bed.
So, «у X» 'at X's possession' is a preposition like any other. In Russian, you don't say "he has a bed". Instead, you say "at his possession, there is no bed".
To express absence, you use нет + genitive-case forms. To form genitive from feminine nouns, you replace -а with -ы, -я with -и, and -ь with -и.
No, if there were no negation, you'd use the nominative case, the original form of the noun:
- Ду́маю, у него есть крова́ть. 'I think he has a bed.' (literally, "I think, at his [possession], there-is a bed.')
Well, in this exact case, nominative and accusative look the same, but this is nominative.
This is nominative because 'a bed' is actually the subject in Russian. In English, 'he' does the action of 'having' the bed. In Russian, 'a bed' does the action of 'being' in his possession. Since the bed is doing the action (the bed is the subject), we use the nominative case.
It's same for «крова́ть», but not for other nouns:
- Ду́маю, у него́ есть сестра́. I think he has a sister. (сестра́ is nominative, сестру́ is accusative; сестру́ can't be used here)
- Ду́маю, у него есть брат. I think he has a brother. (брат is nominative, бра́та is accusative; бра́та can't be used here)
- Ду́маю, у него́ есть ла́мпа. I think he has a lamp. (ла́мпа is nominative, ла́мпу is accusative; ла́мпу can't be used here)
So, it's clearly nominative and not accusative.
This works, too.
In «думаю», you can drop the pronoun because it's a parenthetical expression, like «возможно» 'probably'.
У него нет, the inner clause, is a negative sentence (я думаю, the main clause, is not).