I understand that рабочий and работник represents two different kinds of employees. But 1: it occurs to me that I once heard that работник was particularly used for workers in the Soviet Union. Is there any such political or class nuance with the word or is it just the blue vs white collar worker as explained. 2: рабочий does look like an adverb to me. Is there any (etymological?) explanation for this? Right now I can't think of any other nouns ending in -ий although there are sure to be many.
Just Slavic languages? The words that immediately come to mind are American, European, German etc. Btw, for some strange reasons English is not one of them - you can say "As an American, I ..." but not "As an English ..." - it would have to be "an Englishman/English woman"
No, not just Slavic languages, but in Slavic in general it works the same way as in Russian… for the biggest part. The thing is that Slavic has a very strong separation of parts of speech contrary to French, German or English -- we distinguish them mainly through suffixation, but there hardly ever is any doubt what pos a word belongs to. Such adj → noun transposition happens, but on different terms than in Western-European languages.
What you brough up still works as a rule for English, but there other rules that might contribute to what you can actually say. Your example is a counterexample as well, because "the English" is very much a noun -- yet an uncountable one. So it's the countability here that's the problem here -- same as with my example of "sick", where you can't say "a sick went to a doctor" :)
But you can still brush with a brush, supina with a supina or do sth quick real(ly) quick. And in Slavic you can't :)
It sounds like Рабочий more directly translates as "laborer".
I don't think I'd ever use "a worker" as a general job description in English. Certainly not in a question like this. "Construction worker" and so on are used, and I would use "the workers" to refer to people doing a specific (construction or similar) job. But if someone asked me "Are you a worker?" I would think they were asking if I was employed, and I would think that English was not their native language.
Certainly not in everyday life. Perhaps in some academic discourse - but I have a feeling that even in that context these words became too associated with the Soviet propaganda, so I doubt a normal person would use them on his/her own volition. You should ask a sociologist or an economist though.
Makes the dog feel valued and a part of the process. The dog does actually seem to understand he has a role to play by just sitting there. He isn't running off or lying down or goofing off because he feels like there is nothing for him to do. He just waits in case he is needed.
Dachshunds are a rather patient dog and well suited to this kind of labor. They seem to enjoy being involved in this low key kind of way. Something to do with how they were bred.
The body cover for the wrenches makes him feel submitted. That induces even more patience than normal. Dominant dogs submit subordinate dogs by standing over them and crouching down which makes the submitted dog feel he can't get away. Body covers deliver the same effect to most dogs. Since they already accept their subordination to their owner, the feeling doesn't bother them much but it does change their behavior somewhat, especially spontaneity.