Struggling with how words change for genders and case - Any advice and tips, please?
With just Duolingo alone, I'm finding it difficult to pick up on how the Subject of a sentence changes based on gender and case.
I've admittedly not gone far at all in this course just yet and my reasoning for that is I find it a little offputting to be getting answers wrong because I didn't know that the word for the Subject of the sentence needed to change for a specific word because of the gender, for example (like Мой, Моя and Моё).
However, I do understand that I shouldn't be relying on Duolingo alone to learn a language - as amazing as a course may be, further reading is always going to be beneficial. So that's what I'm asking for here, please!
Does anyone have any suggested further reading that I can sink my teeth into, or maybe just some quick and dirty hints in the comments, regarding identifying genders and how Nouns and Subjects change based on case and gender?
I'm doing Russian and I'm having exactly the same problem. I just can't remember which is which.
Are you specifically asking about case declensions or gendered nouns? Or the declension of gendered nouns?
There are some good charts online as well... Let me see if I can attach some of them...
Will these help?
Be aware that there are errors in трамвай in the first chart - I did let the creator know (it was published on Tumblr) but no response so far that I've seen. It's a shame, because otherwise I think his/her charts are excellent.
ETA: oh, I didn't even notice the missing breves in the ей мной тобой etc. Kinda handy how the print is so small you can almost pretend they're right ;)
I like the pronoun chart, but unless I'm really forgetful, I swear I saw/used the form "её" used in at least one of the sentences I've done meaning "her or hers", but I don't see that form on the chart you've posted. Am I losing my mind?
Yes, you are correct. "Её" is Russian for "her". "Ё" is not always written with the diaeresis (the dots above the vowel). It appears this chart writes them as "ее". Stress points on vowels and diaereses can be dropped, but the breve above an "Й" character cannot be. Or so I have been told. So no, you aren't crazy. :)
Perhaps a native/heritage speaker could clarify for us when they write "Ё" and when they choose to write it as "E". Any suggestions?
е is just a contraction of ё, it's a choice of a writer to write it with the umlaut or not.
Books for children always use ё
You forgot й in ей, мной, тобой, ей, собой, о ней.
And don't pay attention to words in round brackets so far, these are poetical forms.
Ok... A book I would highly recommend is Essentials of Russian Grammar (http://www.ebay.com/itm/like/261620315252?ul_noapp=true&chn=ps&lpid=82) or (http://www.amazon.com/Essentials-Russian-Grammar-Complete-Professionals/dp/0844242446) It explains the usage of Russian grammar and cases very well. Definitely a book that you will continue to use as you become more fluent. And not as expensive as some Russian textbooks are :)
I'm not completely new to Russian, but this is still something that I find difficult. I think that having a chart helps, but even with a chart, it probably takes a lot of practice.
I have a couple of the changes down, but there is a lot more for me to get. I figure that it will come with time and practice.