Does anyone else think that duolingo should read the sentence(s) you pick on multiple choice questions?
I'd love that, for the correct ones (I don't like the idea of it reading incorrect things out loud when I'm not yet consciously aware which ones are incorrect and why). Maybe they could make buttons appear after the fact. I often paste them into Google translate which I have open in a different tab, to read them out loud, or I click through to the talk page. Actually, this is why I'm on the talk page right now.
There are tips and notes for every lesson, but they are only visible in the web app. https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Possessive-Modifiers-1
Tips and notes
POSSESSIVE ENEMY MINE
There isn't much to say about words like "my" or "your" in Russian.
his/her/their do not change: его́, её, их(and they don't get an initial Н after prepositions!)
my/your/our roughly follow an adjectival pattern, i.e. they copy the gender and the case of the noun they describe. Just like этот:
Unlike English, no distinction is made between my and mine, her and hers etc.
Pronunciation: in «его», as well as in adjective endings and "сегодня" the letter Г is pronounced В. It is a historical spelling.
Nouns in Russian belong to one of three genders: feminine, masculine or neuter. If a noun means a person of a certain gender, use that one. For all other nouns look at the end of the word:
(TABLE) ENDING IN NOM; GENDER; EXAMPLES
-а/-я ; feminine ; ма́ма, земля́, Росси́я, маши́на
consonant ; masculine ; сок, ма́льчик, чай, интерне́т, апельси́н
-о/-е ; neuter ; окно́, яйцо́, мо́ре
-ь ; feminine or masculine - consult a dictionary ; ло́шадь, ночь, мать, любо́вь / день, конь, медве́дь, учи́тель
IF THERE'S A SOFT SIGN, IT ISN'T POSSIBLE TO PREDICT THE GENDER, AT LEAST, NOT ACCURATELY. HOWEVER, ABOUT 65-70% OF THE MOST USED NOUNS THAT END IN -Ь ARE FEMININE. ALSO, YOU CAN LEARN THE COMMON SUFFIXES ENDING IN A SOFT SIGN THAT PRODUCE A WORD OF A PREDICTABLE GENDER. THEY ARE:
-ость/-есть, -знь → feminine
-тель, -арь, -ырь → masculine
ALL NOUNS WITH -ЧЬ, ЩЬ, -ШЬ, -ЖЬ AT THE END ARE FEMININE. THE CONVENTION IS TO SPELL FEMININE NOUNS WITH A SOFT SIGN AND MASCULINE ONES WITHOUT ONE: НОЖ, ЛУЧ, МУЖ, ДУШ. IT DOESN'T AFFECT PRONUNCIATION, ANYWAY.
should I read this as "твоё слово" or as "твое слово" (I'm guessing it's the first one, I just need to confirm this :-)
(But if you're going for a 18th-century style, «твое» would work. Also, in Church Slavonic we don't have ё, so in church context this can work too: you can hear «се́стры» instead of «сёстры» in ecclesiastical contexts.)
Interesting! So they not only wrote твое, but pronounced it as a е instead of ё?
Yes. For example, Mikhail Lomonosov rhymed лет — дерзне́т, блаже́н — одаре́н, ме́ст — зве́зд, пче́лку — стре́лку, тече́т — не́т.
In modern pronounciation, they wouldn't be rhyming: лет — дерзнёт, блажен — одарён, мест — звёзд, пчёлку — стрелку, течёт — нет.
All singular Russian nouns have one of three genders: masculine, feminine or neuter. Before masculine nouns, you use «твой» (твой сто́л 'your table'). Before feminine nouns, you use «твоя́» (твоя́ ла́мпа 'your lamp). Before neuter nouns, you use «твоё» (твоё зе́ркало 'your looking-glass').
In plural, you use «твои́» befoe all the nouns (твои́ столы́ 'your tables', твои́ ла́мпы 'your lamps', твои́ зеркала́ 'your looking-glasses').
I'm a bit confused. Do I use «твоё» for both masculine and neuter nouns? Or is that just a typo and you meant «твой» just for masculine?
Indeed, it was a typo, thanks for noticing! I've fixed my post.
Cool, I have another question though. How come "ваше" is used here instead of "твой"?, and whats the difference between them? Does it have something to do with formality? Thanks.
Right! However, the exact correspondence is «твоё», not «твой»:
- Твоё/твой is a familiar singular form, ваше/ваш is a polite or plural form. If you address the person with ты, familiar 'you' used with friends, then you use твой/твоё to mean 'your'. If you use вы to mean 'you', then you use ваш/ваше to mean 'your'.
- Твой/ваш is used with masculine nouns, твоё/ваше is used with neuter nouns (and твоя/ваша is used with feminine nouns). Since «слово» is neuter, you use твоё/ваше.
Okay, thank you! I understand now! Is there a way to know when a noun ins neuter?
Most neuter nouns end in -о or -е in nominative case.
So im still not getting the difference. "ваше" is for formal situations and "твоё" is for informal situations?
«Твоё» is the neuter adjective corresponsing to «ты». «Ваше» corresponds to «вы».
Choice between ты and вы mostly depends on the person, it doesn't depends on the situation much (although in extremely formal situations you might want to use only вы).
If you're talking to someone with whom you're on very friendly terms (e.g. close friends, family members), then you use «ты». If you're talking to someone whom you don't know well (e.g. shopkeepers, strangers), you use «вы».
In many cases, both «ты» and «вы» is possible (e.g. with neighbours, colleagues), and the exact pronoun depends on the person. Ты might sound impolite, вы might sound too formal and cold. When unsure, just ask the person what pronoun they prefer. I do that a lot.
In the past, a common situation was that someone with a lower social status uses «ты» and someone with a higher social status uses «вы». Outside school and talking to small children, this is uncommon nowadays. When someone uses «ты» to you, you're usually expected to use «ты» to them too; when someone uses «вы», you're expected to use «вы» too.
Wait I read somewhere the word "слова" Was it because it was declined in some case or there is a feminine version of the word?
It's because it's declined.
Сло́ва is genitive singular, слова́ is nominative plural or accusative plural.
Сло o pronounced like o Во o pronounced like a Am I missing any pronunciation rule?
Russian has vowel reduction. Unstressed О become undistinguishable from А. Only stressed O (we sometimes mark stress with acute: сло́во; or with ' before the syllable in transcription: /'slovə/) is clearly pronounced as [o].
If you use Latin script, try copy-pasting Cyrillic (твоё слово or Ваше слово), transliteration doesn't always work very well in Duolingo.
thanks i've try but the problem still remain because there is a multiple answer and it's like blocked i don't know why
Maybe you need to choose two variants? This sentence should accept both «твоё слово» and «ваше слово».
Unfortunately, I've never had the problem so I don't know much. This is just a hypothesis.