Translation:It is snowing.
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Two days ago, I couldn't remember either word at all, so I just gave up and wrote "idiot snake" instead. Surprisingly, this was marked incorrect. However, apparently it's served me well as an mnemonic because I haven't forgotten it once since. :) Maybe it'll help somebody else, too.
When talking about precipitation, we use the the noun with the verb «идти́» (literally 'to go'). E.g. идёт снег 'it's snowing', идёт дождь 'it's raining', идёт гра́д 'it's hailing'.
Does снег actually ever sound like it ends with a k?
Yes. At the end of the word, voiced consonants are devoiced: снег is pronounced with [к] at the end, код 'code' and кот 'cat' are pronounced in the same way.
Yes, they sound absolutely identically to native speakers in standard Russian.
The spelling is based on the other forms of the word: for example, in the plural снега́ ‘snows’, the [g] is clearly audible. But in the form снег, the difference between -г and -к doesn’t exist.
Is "snow falls" not correct? In any case, there won't to be a literal translation into English, but is the sense of this phrase not closer to something that the snow does, rather than something an abstract 'it' does, or is, as in "холодно!" ("It is cold!) It seems that "снег идёт" and "снег подаёт" are more similar to each other than to the English phrase "it snows", in that they both have to do with the motion of snow.
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"I'm an engineer" would be «Я инжене́р».