"The person who wrote the answer is my boss."
Translation:Человек, написавший ответ, — мой начальник.
Participles are verb forms that you can use like adjectives (e.g., "broken", "built").
Russian also has two forms used like adverbs ("while doing" something or "having done" something).
Past participles (the active ones) express that the noun did the action. You can replace them with a clause that goes like "who did ...." or "that was...." and so on:
- жить → Человек, живший здесь до меня, уехал в США. = The person who lived here before me left for the USA
- смотреть → Люди, смотревшие ужастики, ждали этот фильм. = People who watched horrors waited for that film.
- приготовить → Студент, приготовивший обед, сейчас дома. = The student who cooked the lunch(dinner) is at home.
- стоять → Здание, стоявшее напротив, было ещё выше. = The building that stood in front of it was even taller.
- написать → Художник, написавший это письмо, исчез. = The artist who wrote that message disappeared.
- выйти → Перевод, вышедший в 1873, был ужасен. = The translation that came out in 1873, was terrible.
English easily does that for simultaneous actions: "People watching a lot of movies like this director". But not in the past: there is no form of "watch" you can use to express "People who watched a lot of movies".
Russian can do that. The form we miss is a perfective future participle (e.g. "приготовящий", "напишущий"); ironically, you can just occasionally encounter it in some people's writing but it's truly rare.
Note that participles are characteristic of written Russian. We do not use them often in speech. Some adjectives are in fact participles (e.g., следующий "next").
In English, you can use gerund forms as past participles - The people who were living here last year moved to Florida. And you can use them as present participles - The girl who is living here has a big dog.
While *running" down the street, he saw an armadillo. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/302515299968517185/