"No, this is not a notebook."
Translation:Нет, это не тетрадь.
So if I were saying "No, not this notebook" I'd say something like «нет не ета тетрадь»?
Right, "no, not this notebook" would be «нет, не э́та тетра́дь».
I still mess this up. I realise what I've done wrong the moment it comes back as wrong, though, so, hey, that counts as progress, I think?
Is тетрадь female or neutral? I think it is correct to say это моя тетрадь But это is for neutral end моя is for female How can this be?
About э́то, please have a look at the guide by olimo: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11536858
What is the difference between не and ни? I get them confused! And it counted it incorrect for this question. :)
НИ is a particle that means "not one" and is widely used for "neither . . . nor . . ." struccture, which is where you will find it in our course:
- Я не ем ни яблоки, ни апельсины. = I eat neither apples nor oranges.
You can use it for more than two objects if you want to be that dramatic:
- Я не ем ни кошек, ни собак, ни попугаев. = I do not eat cats, dogs, or parrots.
НЕ closely resembles the English "not" and is used for negation.
Oh! So, и and ни are opposites? ('I eat both apples and rice', versus 'I eat neither apples nor rice'? I see what you did there..)
Sort of. To be more exact, they are opposites when use as double(triple etc.) conjunctions. Here is how и, или and ни match their English equivalents:
- both . . . and . . . = и ... , и ...
- either . . . or . . . = или ... , или ...
- neither . . . nor . . . = ни ... , ни ...
The only trick is to remember that ни ... , ни ... is used in negative sentences in Russian. In English you may need to switch to "or" or to not negate the main verb, otherwise the sentence will come out weird:
- Я не пью ни колу, ни водку. = I do not drink cola or vodka / I drink neither cola nor vodka.
Because otherwise you'd get "I do not drink no cola or vodka!" which is, arguably, an unusual thing to say.
Спасибо! That makes sense. I'll try and remember this!
How are Нет and Не different? It seems like they both mean "no" or "not".
Please see my answer (and Shady_arc’s correction) here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11557601$comment_id=11557823
After "не" why do we not use the genitive case (for тетрадь). Why is it still in nominative? I thought after negative things we have to use genitive case.
A short answer: you should not have thought "after negarive things we have to use the Genitive case". This is plain wrong.
A longer answer requires you to understand what IS the Genitive of negation and how verbs sometimes trigger the Genitive when negated.
First, the Genitive is always required when the noun has a «нет» attached, effectively in statements of "non-existence". The past and the future versions of нет are «не было» and «не будет» respectively. Consider нет a quantity word:
- пять кошек = five cats
- коробка кошек = a box of cats
- нет кошек = no cats
Second, Russian verbs have their own case requirements. Some verbs called transitive behave in a simple manner: they have a "direct" object that is thought of as being utterly and most seriously affected by the action. These verbs use the Accusative case for such an object.
- sometimes Russian transitive verbs align neatly with English verbs of the same nature (those that have a direct object with no preposition whatsoever): take, send, invite, kill, create, write, read, ask, love, hate, see, hear, destroy, punish, reward, thank.
- sometimes it does not work: нравиться "like" is intransitive, while слушать "to listen to" is transitive. Ждать (to wait) is sometimes transitive for entites that can affect their own "arrival" (e.g., people, cars) but only uses the Genitive for other things (e.g., events). In English it is virtually always "wait" + "for" with nouns.
Some such verbs sometimes switch to the Genitive when negated:
- Я не слышал сигнала/сигнал. ~ I did not hear the signal.
- Я не обратил внимания на запах. ~ I did not notice the smell ("обратить внимание" is the expression for "to pay attention, to note").
Under these circumstances, some Slavic languages switch to the Genitive consistently or, at least, very often (I heard, Polish is such a language). In contemporary Russian, however, this switch is fairly complicated. The default is "keep the noun Accusative"—and yet some verbs or contexts trigger the Genitive nonetheless. Explaning it would require a very long post.
So if тетрадь (notebook) is feminine ... why is it это and not эта ?
Because это is a free-standing pronoun (это тетрадь 'this [is a] notebook') and not a modifier for тетрадь (эта тетрадь '[is] this notebook'). See a guide by olimo for more info: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/11536858
Oh i see ... thanks for the explanation, much appreciated. :)
I chose тетради instead of тетрадь and it was marked as correct. I went, Whaaaat?
Well, тетрадь is singular (nominative), and тетради is plural (nominative; or singular genitive). Both «Э́то тетра́дь» 'This is an exercise book' and «Э́то тетра́ди» 'These are exercise books' are correct sentences.
I don't get what the apostrophe at the end of the word means.
Well, I do not see any apostrophe at the end of a word here :). It's always best to provide your answer and what the application said. Because no one knows what you saw.