"The boy does not have milk."
Translation:У мальчика нет молока.
No, we never use «не е́сть».
Why isn't it молоко? I thought after the verb есть we use the nominative case.
But this sentence doesn't really have the verb «есть». :) It has «нет», which is used with a noun in the genitive case.
It seems strange to me how, in order for Russian translations to make sense, English people have to stick other words into the sentence.
What I mean is, this sentence literally translates to: "this boy no milk" or even "boy no milk". We have to stick in words like " has", "or", or "and" in order for this sentence to not sound like a caveman grunt to us. Why is this?
Because your native tongue uses articles. We Spanish speakers have the same problem.
I mean, if all languages were the same then there... wouldn't be any different languages.
Well said. Where is the Nobel committee when you need them? It's not often something so profound gets tossed off by just anyone. :)
I use to say to my students that when all languages were created people of all countries did not meet together to synchronize their grammar rules...
One funny fact is that for us, Spanish speakers, the English language sometimes sounds like that, like a caveman grunt.
That would mean "This boy..." rather than "The boy..." Try to resist the urge to use something in place of "a" or "the" in Russian. Your version of the sentence gives the impression that there is a boy in the same room and you are pointing at him. :)
Why is it that both мальчика and молока are used in genitive? Is there an accord between the two?
No, those are unrelated. «У» requires genitive (hence «у мальчика» 'at [the] boy's possession'), and «нет» requires genitive («нет молока» 'there is no milk). Those are completely unrelated to each other, and if you use them in other contexts, they will have other cases:
- У ма́льчика есть молоко́. 'The boy has milk.' (literally 'at boy's [possession], there-is milk'; молоко is nominative because you use nominative with есть)
- В холоди́льнике нет молока́. 'There is no milk in the fridge.' (холоди́льнике is prepositional because в requires either prepositional or accusative)
Duo just accepted молоко as a typo, which it shouldn't since it's the wrong case. Reported.
This might not be explained yet, because sometimes Duolingo introduces new words without explaining them.
Russian nouns have several forms called cases.
Ма́льчик is the nominative case, it's used when it's a subject of the sentence (ма́льчик ви́дит соба́ку 'the boy sees a dog'; 'the boy' does the action of 'seeing', so it's the subject of the sentence).
Ма́льчика is either genitive or accusative case. The preposition «у», used to show the possessor, is used with the nouns in the genitive case. Note that the structure of the Russian sentence is different from the structure of the English one. In English, 'the boy' is the subject ('the boy does not have milk'), 'the boy' does (or, rather, doesn't do) the action of 'having'. In Russian, the structure is like 'at [the] boy, there-is-no milk'. This sentence doesn't even have nominative case, it uses a completely different construction.
Aside from being used with «нет» 'there is no' to show absence, genitive can be used to show possession: молоко́ ма́льчика 'the boy's milk'.
Ма́льчика can also be an accusative case. Accusative case is used for objects, that is, for something affected by the action. For example, in «соба́ка куса́ет ма́льчика» 'the dog bites the boy', 'the boy' is the object, he gets affected by the action of the dog (and the dog is the subject).
Technically yes, but generally people don't say "milks". You're far more likely to see "виды молока" or "типы молока" (both basically meaning "types of milk").
I thought if possession was in the negative, the object is in the genitive case but the owner is not.
@2rellik2 - The genitive case is used with the "owner" because of the preposition у. The object is in genitive because of the negation.
I write - У малъчика нет молока, and it answers almost correct - У мальчика нет молока. -! What is 'almost right'?
You've used a hard sign Ъ instead of a soft sign Ь.
In modern Russian, hard sign is only used after prefixes (подъезд '❤❤❤❤❤'), in some loanwords (объект 'object') and foreign names (Ли Шанъинь 'Li Shangyin').
Ok what's they difference between мальчик and чиловек and why was чиловек wrong? Provided I spelled it right. Thanks
«Челове́к» is a 'person, human', «ма́льчик» is a 'boy'. Each мальчик is a человек, but not vice versa.
I wrote "U mal'chika net moloka" but was told: "You used the wrong word. У мальчика нет молока" Can anyone explain why this should be (and it is not a only such case)?
Russian nouns (words naming things, people and phenomena) have several forms called cases.
Молоко́ (moloko) is the nominative case. It's used in "X is Y" sentences (Молоко́ вку́сное 'The milk is tasty'), or when the milk is 'doing' some action (Молоко́ ски́сло 'The milk went sour'; the 'milk' is the 'doer' of the action 'going sour').
However, when you use «нет», you need to use a different form: genitive case. It's also the case used after «у», so both «ма́льчика» and «молока́» are genitive-case forms.
No, «У мальчика нет молоко» ungrammatical. «Нет» requires genitive.