Irregular Passato Prossimo Verbs- A partial list
The ones that you should encounter on Duolingo, at least:
For the regular verb forms, follow these simple rules:
Pretty much all of the regular verbs use AVERE as the auxillary.
If you have to guess, then guess AVERE.
For ARE Verbs, keep the "A" and the ending becomes ATO
For ERE Verbs, drop the "E" and the ending becomes UTO
For IRE Verbs, keep the "I" and the ending becomes ITO
Examples of "regular" verbs, in Passato Prossimo:
DARE becomes DATO; MANGIARE becomes MANGIATO; LAVORARE becomes LAVORATO.
SAPERE becomes SAPUTO, POTERE becomes POTUTO; VOLERE becomes VOLUTO.
CAPIRE becomes CAPITO, FINIRE becomes FINITO, SENTIRE becomes SENTITO.
So then, in combination with the various auxillary forms in Passato Prossimo: Ho dato (I gave); Hai mangiato (You ate); Ha saputo (He/ she/ it knew): Abbiamo votuto (We wanted); Avete capito (you all understood); Hanno sentito (They heard).
I can't stress just how important these verbs are. I made a Memrise course a few months back with about 50 of these verbs. They represent most of the irregular participles you'll ever come across. I've included the infinitives in Italian and English, so does double duty.
great job. Only two corrections. The verbs "correre" and "vivere" can take both auxiliaries.
if followed by a direct object they are constructed with "avere" as every transitive verb:
ho vissuto una vita difficile
ho corso una maratona
without object instead they are constructed with "essere"
sono vissuta qui a lungo
sono corsa a casa
That's why I put the asterisks (*) on the chart, although I missed it on Vivere.
Those verbs can, as you say, take either auxillary depending on context.
I was going to explain that, but couldn't figure out a good place to do it.
Because they don't meet my English criteria for "What?".
What did you cry? What did you laugh?
In Italian, they go with avere despite being intransitive.
Both verbs can be transitive. I was taught that ridere can be used for "laugh at" or deride (a cognate). Sometimes we have to express the English meaning periphrastically. Like cercare (look for).